To obtain Pakistan visa please contact the nearest Pakistan High Commission or a consulate to your place. If you do not have Pakistan embassy or consulate in your city/ country then contact the neighboring country’s Pakistan embassy who may assist you to obtain Pakistan visa. To find their contact please visit (Pakistan Embassies Abroad) section of our website. Generally visa processing takes 5 to 7 working days. For any further assistance/ invitation letter for obtaining visa please contact our office. To download visa forms and fee information refer the following web link (


Pakistan Missions abroad are authorized to grant Pakistan visa / tourist visa for three months validity and stay with double entry to foreign tourists.

RPOs have been authorized to extend tourist visa for Pakistan up to a maximum period of six months including the initial visa period and condone overstay up to 15 days on payment of visa fee subject to payment of a minimum of US $ 10 only.

For Northern Areas, the Deputy Commissioners Gilgit & Skardu have been authorized to allow extension in Pakistan visa for three months and one re-entry to the tourists in Northern Areas, charging visa fee as per policy.


Chinese and Japanese group tourists, through designated/authorized tour operators are allowed 72 hours Landing permit on arrival at Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar and Quetta Airports and Sust Check Post followed by 30 days Pakistan visa extension through Regional Passport Offices located at Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar and Quetta subject to the following conditions:-

i. Pakistan visa application will be submitted through designated/authorized tour operators only;
ii. The concerned tour operator will also submit undertaking to the effect that the tourists will be their responsibility and that they will not illegally overstay beyond validity of Pakistan visa;
iii. If required, the same tour operators will apply, before expiry of visa for further extension upto 30 days; and iv. The concerned tour operators will submit a confirmation about exit of the said tourists, after their actual leaving the country.


Foreign Journalists holder of accreditation card whose cases are recommended by the Ministry of Information and Media Development Islamabad are granted Pakistan visa/extension on yearly basis with multiple entries.

Non- based foreign Journalists for short visits are allowed one-month visa extension with two re-entries.
Their visas are valid / restricted for Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi only.
Their requests to visit additional places received through Ministry of Information and Media Development are considered on case to case basis.


Foreign nationals can only apply for Pakistan visa from their country of origin OR from the place of legal permanent residence. Request for visas of a THIRD COUNTRY origin will be decided only by the Ambassador / High Commissioner / Head of Mission / Consulate.


Genuine businessmen from following 48 countries are allowed Visa on Arrival (VOA) none reporting for 30 Days on production of any of the following documents.

Recommendation letter from CC&I of the respective country of the foreigner Invitation letter from Business organization duly recommended by the concerned Trade Organization/ Association in Pakistan Recommendatory letter by Honorary Investment Counselor of BOI / commercial attaché posted at Missions abroad Argentina, Hungary, Qatar, Australia, Iceland, Russia, Austria, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Iran, Singapore, Belgium, Ireland, Slovakia Republic, Brazil, Italy, South Africa, Brunei, Japan., South Korea, Canada, Kuwait, Spain, Chile, Luxembourg, Sweden, China(Including Hong Kong), Malaysia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Mexico, Thailand, Denmark, Netherlands, Turkey, Finland, New Zealand, UAE, France, Norway, U.K., Germany, Oman, U.S.A., Greece, Poland, Portugal.



Missions abroad can issue up to five years multiple business visa Pakistan (non-reporting) within 24 Hours to businessmen of 48 countries of List-A on production of any of the following documents:-
Recommendation letter from CC&I of the respective country of the foreigner Invitation letter from Business organization duly recommended by the concerned Trade Organization/ Association in Pakistan Recommendatory letter by Honorary Investment Counselor of BOI / commercial attach posted at Missions abroad.

Missions are also authorized to issue entry visa for one month to Genuine Businessmen of countries besides those in A List (except those not recognized by Pakistan) from applicants own country or place of legal residence by Ambassador / High Commissioner / Head of Mission only on the following criteria:

The applicant belongs to Company of International repute.
And / or Fulfills the criteria laid down for List A country in respect of valid sponsorship from Pakistan.

Icon Visa Extension in Pakistan

The Regional Passport Offices at Islamabad as well as at Provincial capitals, have been empowered to allow one year extension in business visa on submission of the following requisite business related documents.
a. Valid passport / business visa.
b. Documents showing substantial investment / export / import during last year.
c. Registration letter from Tourism Division (in case of hotel business)
d. Other business documents (i.e. letter from Chamber of Commerce & Industry / Registrar of Company, partnership deed, article of association etc.)

Extension in Pakistan visa beyond one year will be granted by the Ministry of Interior on production of the requisite business documents.


Visa Committee under the Chairmanship of Secretary Board of Investment approves the work visa cases received in BOI through the companies working in Pakistan.

Visa advice is however issued by Ministry of Interior to Pakistan Mission abroad as per recommendation of BOI, in case of fresh entry visa for Pakistan and to Regional Passport Offices (RPOs) in case of visa extension.

The Committee may however, recommend work visa upto five years with multiple entries.

To facilitate the foreign investors, expatriates who hold business visa but are working in Pakistan, conversion of business visa to work visa is allowed on payment of fee of US Dollars 100/- in addition to work visa fee of the country of foreigner.


Request of the students is received by the MOI and Ministry of Education. Student visa is granted after obtaining NOC from Ministry of Education /Economics Affairs Division/Ministry of Health (as the case may be) and foreign Mission in Pakistan of the respective country and security clearance.

NOC is granted of the security cleared students for entry visa to the Mission abroad for three months with single entry visa Pakistan.

Foreign Students studying in Pakistan on proper student visa are granted visa/visa extension for one year with one re-entry. The same procedure is applied to foreign teachers of International Islamic University, Islamabad.


Foreigners of Pak Origin are granted visa with multiple entries upto one year or validity of their passport, whichever is less by Missions abroad.

RPOs may grant Extension in visa to foreigners of Pak Origin for one year with multiple entries and upto 5 years without entries, subject to validity of their passport. A period of overstay upto six months can be condoned by RPOs in such cases.

Foreign wives of Foreigner of Pak Origin are also issued the same visa extension as to Pak Origin foreigners, subject to production of copy of Nikkah Nama / Marriage Certificate and NIC of husband.

Landing Permit for 72 hours can be granted by Airport Immigration staff, with prior approval of the Zonal Director (FIA) concerned, to the foreigners of Pak Origin and their families only in emergency cases on production of documentary proof of Pak Origin.


Sikhs of foreign passport holders (other than the Indian passports) are granted entry visa for Pakistan by the Missions for a fortnight for the following places. Sheikhupura (Nankana Sahib) Rawalpindi / Hassan Abdal (Panja Sahib).


Embassies are empowered to grant short term visa for one month to the expatriates working with Non Government Organizations in Pakistan.

For long term visa, the NGO is required to be registered with Government of Pakistan. In such cases, Mission abroad refers the applications for prior clearance from Ministry of Interior before granting visas.

In case of extension of visa, the registered NGOs may apply directly to Ministry of Interior which in turn authorizes the concerned RPOs for grant of extension of visa, if all the formalities are met.

For further visa Pakistan details please contact your nearest Pakistan embassy, to find their contact please visit (Pakistan Embassies Abroad) section of our website.

For visa rules please refer the following web link

Hotel Reservations in Pakistan


We have contruacted rates with all hotels including the small guest houses home stays in the mountains and big 5 star hotels in cities like Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi and Peshawar.

Serena Hotels in PakistanHotels in Islamabad: 
IconSerena Hotel.
IconMarriott Hotel.
IconHunza Embassy Lodge.
IconMargalla Hotel.
IconEnvoy Continental Hotel
IconBest Western Hotel.
IconDreamland Motel.
IconJawa International Hotel.
IconContinental House.
IconRose Garden Hotel.
IconCiti Hotel.

Hotels in Rawalpindi:
Pearl Continental Hotels in PakistanIconPearl Continental Hotel.
IconFlashmans Hotel.
IconRegent Hotel.
IconAkbar International Hotel.
IconAl- Farooq Hotel.
IconAmeer International.
IconAvanti Hotel.
IconHilton House.
IconNew Gulf.
IconParadise Inn.
IconPark Hotel.
IconRoyal Palace.
IconUnited Hotel.
IconKashimir Inn.

Hotels in Lahore PakistanHotels in Lahore: 
IconAmbassador Hotel.
IconAmer Hotel.
IconAvari Hotel.
IconBakhtawar International.
IconBest Westen Shalimar.
IconCarlton Tower Hotel.
IconHoliday Inn.
IconTaj Mahal Hotel.
IconLeaders Inn.
IconPearl Continental Hotel.
IconShobra Hotel.
IconHotel Crown Plaza.

Hotels in Karachi PakistanHotels in Karachi:
IconMarriott Hotel.
IconMehran Hotel.
IconRamada Hotel.
IconAirport Hotel.
IconHotel Jabees.
IconDays Inn.
IconGulf Hotel.
IconFaran Hotel.
IconAl- Harmain Hotel.
IconBeach Luxury.
IconAl- Mashiq.
IconBloom Luxury.
IconAl- Mustafa.
IconAvari Tower.
IconAl- Salatin.
IconEmbassy Inn.
IconRegent Plaza.
IconSheraton Hotel.
IconUnited Hotel.

Hotels in Swat PakistanHotels in Peshawar: 
IconPearl Continental Hotel.
IconGrand Hotel.
IconGreens Hotel.
IconBlue Palace Guest House.
IconExecutive Gest House.
IconIntercon Inn.
IconPark Inn.
IconPearl Castle Guest House.
IconRegent Guest House.
IconRoyal Castle.
IconShelton House.
IconDecent Lodge.
IconExecutive Guest House.
IconV.I.P House.

Hotels in Swat: 
IconChalet City.
IconRock City Resort.
IconD. Shahzad
IconDe Park.
IconHills Park,
IconPark Continental.
IconPark Way.
IconSwat Continental.
IconSwat Riveria.
IconSerena Hotel.
IconWhite Palace.

Hotels in Murree:
IconJawa International.
IconShangrila Resort.
IconShifang Adventure Lodge.

Hotels in Naran: 
IconTravellers Inn.
IconPine Park.
Hotels in Nathiegali: 
IconNew pines.
Hotels in Bhurban: 
IconPearl Continental Hotel.
IconHotel Royal Igloos.
Hotels in Besham PakistanHotels in Besham: 
IconBesham Continental Hotel.

Hotels in Chilas: 
IconShangri-la Midway.
IconChilas Inn.
Hotels in Fairy Meadows: 
IconRaikot Sarai.
IconFairy Meadow Tourist Cottage.

Hotels in Astore: 
IconPTDC Motel.
IconKamran Hotel.
IconDream land Hotel.
IconNanga Parbat Hotel.
IconRupal Inn Guest House.
IconDeosai Hotel.

HHotels in Skardu Pakistanotels in Skardu / Baltistan: 

IconMasherbrum Hotel.
IconPTDC K-2 Motel.
IconShiger Fort Residence.
IconConcordia Hotel.
IconPTDC Motel Satpara.
IconShangila Resort.
IconIndus Motel.
IconHilton International Hotel.
IconHimalaya Hotel.
IconHeaven International
IconHotel Sadpara International.
IconKarakoram Inn.
IconHunza Tourist Lodge.
IconHillman Hotel.
IconBaltistan Continental Hotel.

Hotels in Khapulu Baltistan: 

IconPTDC Motel.
IconK-7 Motel.
Hotels in Baltistan PakistanHotels in Hopper: 
IconRush Lake Inn.
IconHoper Hilton Inn.
IconHoper Inn.

Hotels in Sost: 
IconRiveria Hotel.
IconPTDC Motel.
IconKhunjerab Hotel.
IconHunza Dreamland Hotel.
IconSky Bridge Inn.
IconAsia Star Hotel.
IconPak- China Sost port Hotel.

Hotels in Shimshal Valley: 

IconShimshal Tourist Lodge.
IconSifat Guest House.
IconDastagir Guest House.

HotHotels in Hunza Valley Pakistanels in Hunza Valley: 

IconHunza View Hotel.
IconHotel Hunza Embassy.
IconDarbar Hotel.
IconHunza Baltit Inn.
IconEagels Nest Hotel.
IconPTDC Motel.
IconHilltop Hotel.

Hotels in Gulmit Gojal: 

IconGulmit Continental Hotel.
IconSilk Route Lodge.
IconGulmit Tourist Inn.
IconMarcopolo Inn.

Hotels in Passu Gojal
IconSarai Silk Route.
IconPassu Ambasdoor Hotel.
IconPassu Tourist Lodge.
IconGlacier Breeze Camping Side.

Gulmit Continental Hotel Upper Hunza PakistanHotels in Gilgit- Baltistan: 
IconRiveria Hotel.
IconPark Hotel.
IconRupal Inn.
IconGateway Hotel.
IconGrand Continental Hotel.
IconCanopy Nexus.
IconSerena Hotel.
Hotels in Chitral Valley: 
IconHindukush Height Hotel.
IconPTDC Motel.
IconPamir Riverside Inn.
IconMountain Inn.
IconPTDC Motel.
IconMastuj Fort.
IconForeign Tourist Paradise.
IconTirich Mir View Hotel.
IconPTDC Motel.

Hotels in Kalash Valley: 
Senera Hotel Gilgit Baltistan PakistanIconPTDC motel.
IconKalash Hotel.
IconMehran Hotel.
IconKalash Guest House.

Hotels in Ghizer Valley: 

IconPTDC Motel Gupis.
IconPTDC Motel Phandar.
IconGreen Palace Hotel.

Hotels in Quetta:
IconSerena Hotel.
IconBloom Star Hotel.
IconAl- Naeem.
IconIslamabad Hotel.
IconShees Hotel.

Hotels in Abbottabad: 

IconComfort IHotels in Abbottabad Pakistannn.
IconHorizon Guest House.
IconPc Hotel.
IconSnowland Guest House.
IconSunrise Guest House.
IconDecent Lodge.
IconWhispering Pine Guest House.

Hotels in Ayubia: 

IconMontana Lodge.
Hotels in Bahawalpur: 
IconDreams Inn.
IconHumera Hotel.
IconPak Continental Hotel.
IconMall Family Hotel.

The Gilgit Baltistan is the most spectacular and fascinating region of Pakistan. It is here that the world’s three famous mountain ranges meet – the Himalayas, the Karakorams and the Hindukush. The whole Northern Pakistan has come to be known as a paradise for mountaineers, climbers, trekkers, hikers and anglers of the most famous “Trout fish”.

In the Gilgit Baltistan regions of Pakistan, at a stone’s throw from the Amu Darya, is” Bam-e-Dunya” (the roof of the world). This was the name given to the great Pamir plateau, apex of six of the mightiest mountain ranges of the world.

The historic Karakoram pass 5,575 metres, an ancient trading route between Kashmir and Xinjiang, gives its name to the range west of it that forms the watershed between the Indus and the Central Asian deserts. The eastern boundary of the Karakoram is the upper Shyok River from where it extends over 322 km. westwards to the Karumbar river and the Hindukush range. To the north the Shaksgam tributary of the Yarkand River and south by the Indus bound the Karakoram. Here, the Nanga Parbat 8,126 metres massif is the western anchor of the great Himalayan range which stretches in an arc 24,124 km. east to Burma, a boundary and barrier, “the razor’s edge” which for centuries has determined the destiny of the Indian sub-continent.

Mountains Of KarakoramJeep Safari Tour To Hunza ValleyGhizar Valley, Gilgit-BaltistanK2 Mountain Karakoram Pakistan

Such is the setting of Karakoram Range, this remnant of a primeval ice age, “the third pole,” with extensive glacier systems and the greatest concentration of lofty mountains in the world. Some of the largest glaciers outside sub-polar regions flow in the Karakorams. For its sheer mountain grandeur and breath-taking panorama of beauty, few places can match the superb landscape through which the Karakoram Highway snakes. A fantastic and unforgettable spectacle is the passage of the Highway along the Baltura glacier, rated among the worlds seventh largest.

The Khunjerab Pass, which the Highway crosses, and the nearby Mintaka Pass lie astride the fabulous ancient Silk Route that led from Europe to Asia and over which history’s most famous tourists once travelled. These include the Venetian trader Marco Polo after who has been made the wild Marco Polo sheep in the thirteenth century, the Chinese Monk Fe Hien in the fourth century and the Arab historian, Al-Beruni in the eleventh century.

The Siachin glacier is 75 km, the Hispar, (52 km) joints the Biafo at the Hispar La 5,154 metres to form an ice corridor, 116 km. long.The Batura too is 58 km. in length. But the most outstanding of these rivers of ice is the Baltoro (62 km). This mighty glacier fed by some 30 tributaries constitutes a surface area of 1,219 sq. km. Of the fourteen over 8,000 m peaks on earth, four occupy an amphitheatre at the head of Baltoro. There are K-2 (8,611) second only to Everest, Broad Peak (8,047 metres) Gasherbrum-I (8,068 metres), Gasherbrum-II (8,035 metres). Seen from a distance, the Baltoro appears smooth and beautiful but in fact it is a chaotic tumbling mass of rock and ice, troughs and hillocks and the debris of centuries.

It is a unique remote corner of earth. For here, in a frozen wilderness a crag, cornices and crevasses, raise towering spires of granite, great snowy peaks with fluted icy ridges and pinnacles that pierce the sky.In the Lesser Karakorams there are equally great peaks such as Rakaposhi (7,788 metres), the dominant giant in Hunza valley. Its north face is fantastic precipice – 5,791 metres of plunging snow and ice.

There are scores of over 7,000 m peaks in the Karakoram Range and hundreds of nameless summits below 6,000 metres, mere points on the map. The shapes, forms, sizes, colours provide tremendous contrast, which defy description. K-2, the undisputed monarch of the sky, Broad Peak, massive and ugly, Muztagh Tower, deceptively, sheer. Gasherbrum-II, the “Egyptian Pyramid” that even Cheops would have preferred for a tomb, Chogolisa, the “Bride Peak”, in whose eternal embrace lies Hermann Buhi, the first man to climb Nanga Parbat. The Cathedrals of the Baltoro with their great knife-edge ridges, the sky cleaving monoliths of the Trango Towers and most beautiful of all – the Peak of Perfection – Paiyu, (6,600 metres) first climbed by a Pakistani expedition in 1977. The Hindukush is also a mountain vastness containing hundreds of peaks, many above 7,000 metres including a Trichmir 7,705 metre that is the highest point of the range.


Gilgit-Baltistan is home to a number of diversified cultures, ethnic groups, languages and various backgrounds. It is home to people belonging to all regions of Gilgit-Baltistan as well as from other cities of Pakistan and aboard. This multitude of cultures is because of the strategic location of Gilgit. Being the headquarters of the Gilgit-Baltistan as; most of the key offices are located in Gilgit. Shina is the basic language spoken by most of the original settlers but the new comers have various backgrounds of languages and cultures. Other key languages spoken in Gilgit are Wakhi, Brushaski, Khowar & Balti. Urdu and English are the official languages spoke – while other languages include: Pushto and Punjabi. Because of various cultures the pattern of living, housing, food style and over life style has become a mixture having various colors.


Because of the multicultural and multi lingual aspects: people also have a beautiful mix of lifestyles and attitudes. These range from the typical people tending to preserve the traditions and culture to the modern people somehow influenced by other cultures, media and education. That makes a pluralistic society having a range of people with various backgrounds and living together with peace and tranquility.


Majority of the inhabitants are Muslims belonging to two different communities of interpretations i.e. Sunnies, Shias and Ismailies. A small number of Christians also reside in Gilgit. For religious practices Sunnies go to Masjid, Shias go to Imam Bara and Ismailies attend Jamat Khana.

There are mainly two types of festivals i.e. religious and cultural. Religious festivals include: Eid-e-Ghadir, Edi-ul Fitr and Eid Miladunnabi (the birth anniversary of Prophet Muhammad-Peace be upon Him). There are some other important events specific to different communities of interpretation which are celebrated with complete peace and fraternity. Cultural events include:

icons Jashn-e-Baharan.
icons Cultural festivals.
icons Shandoor Polo Festival.
icons Babusar Polo Festival.
icons Harvest festival.

These are greatest opportunities for people to get together and share their talents and skills.

Music and Dances.
The famous trio band music is played in this region as in most of the other regions. On the rhythm of this loud music, men love to dance in their typical way. There are some variations in lyrics from region to

The people of Gilgit-Baltistan as have some unique and very beautiful dances in different parts. Following dances are common during the festivals, traditional events and ceremonies
Old Man Dance In this dance more than one persons wear some old style dresses and dance

Sword Dance.
In this unique dance the participants show taking one sword in right and shield in left. One to six participants as pair can dance.

Cow Boy Dance (Payaloo).
In this dance a person wears old style dress, long leather shoes and a stick in hand.


Music (Hareep).
The instruments commonly used in Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan are Dadang (drum), Damal and Surnai while some other instruments like Sitar, Gabi(Flute) Rabab and duff represent the different areas. Beside these khiling-boo.chang, porgho-too etc instruments are used in Baltistan region.


Alghani: The people of Gilgit, Ghizer Yasin, Puniyal, and Gupis call this rhythm as Alghani.
Ajoli: during departure of bride and groom from house this rhythm is used in different parts of Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan.Souse: A martial rhythm and it has a fast rhythm and is used specially in sword dances.
Dani: Dani is the name of a traditional music used in Hunza which links to Tibet, Baltistan and Laddakh.


After many months, the plants are now ready for reaping and harvesting. This stage involves another festival. Harvest time is celebrated. This festival is performed in the same way as the seeding festival. The villagers thank “Allah” for the bounty that they ore going to harvest. For this, it means lively music (drum beats), dancing and eating on top of sharing the happiness with one another.


A Highlight of the Region’s, the Country’s and the World’s Polo Playing Calendar Story and Photographs by Doug Kuzmiak The exact place where polo originated is shrouded in mists and perhaps myths of the history of Western and Central Asia, but there is no doubt that that this region in general is its birthplace and with some even going so far as to so’ that it was in the Gilgit-Baltistan, and Baltistan’s town of Shigar in particular, where it all started. Whether or not that indeed is the case polo has a long tradition and enjoys a substantial following of enthusiasts in the Northern Areas. Even among people who could never dream of owning a horse, polo has its loyal devotees who regularly support their favourite team and often ‘travel long distances throughout the Gilgit-Baltistan to demonstrate that loyalty. One such instance, and perhaps the largest and most dramatic in the whole Northern Areas, and perhaps all of Pakistan, is the annual Shandur Polo Festival held in July. Until last year Shandur was the highest polo ground in the world ‘it 12,263 feet. That distinction now goes to Babusar at almost 13,599 feet, still in Pakistan. Shandur is on a spur of the old Silk Route. It has been the site of a fierce rivalry between the polo teams from the old fortress town of Chitral in Pakistan’s Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) and the ancient caravanserai and now modern city of Gilgit in the Northern Areas. In 2008 Chitral won the free-style, no chukker polo tournament by two goals and the match had to go into spirited, hard-playing extra time on a ground wider, longer and higher than usually found else-where. It was not without altercations, disagreements, some wildly flying balls and perhaps a rumored fist or two. The Shandur plateau is usually the haunt of grazing sheep, goats and yaks. These occasionally become the prey of brown bear, wolf and even the rare and endangered snow leopard. There is a complex of extremely shallow, snowmelt-fed lakes, which are only about 10 feet deep. The complex constitutes one of South Asia’s great bird-migration flyways, and they play a major role in the propagation of species found nowhere else. The lakes themselves are breeding grounds for species of frogs, toads, snails and plant life in addition to attracting the passing birds. Polo at Shandur goes back a long way and is somewhat colorfully clouded in embellishment. But originally, the polo match at Shandur was a clash between the region’s ruling classes with the princely Methars of Chitral and the equally princely Rajas from what is now the Northern Areas. During the days of the British Raj, when Shandur was one of the farthest and most remote point north in South Asia where the Union Jack flew, polo rivalry was shared by the Chitral Scouts and the equally competitive Gilgit Scouts military regiments. Even though the existing polo pavilion and seating area were established, some say, as far back as the 1930s, Shandur’s remoteness was its environmental saviour. And when Partition of India and Pakistan took place, there appears to have been a break in the activities. That was until the 1980s, when the federal government started supporting polo at Shandur on a large scale, and things began growing from there. Nevertheless, things still were, and are, kucha at best. Players and mounts live in and around tents with the Chitral team on one side of the border, the Gilgit-Baltistan team on the other. Players and their mounts are still made up of the region’s elite, some of whom are the best players in the country and perhaps the world. The 1990s saw prime ministers, including the late Benazir Bhutto, flying in by helicopter for the last day’s main event and during the early 2000s the road between Gilgit and Shandur was paved and from Chitral to Shandur partially paved. People then began loving Shandur to death. The now-comparative ease of access saw an increase in the numbers of both spectators and sellers, and also an increase in indifference to the environment. Solid-waste management, water pollution and erosion problems manifested themselves in a very big way. Vehicles, horses, clothes, crockery and cutlery, and people were all being washed in the fragile lake complex. The mountain of trash and difficulties managing it grew. Going on the environmental offensive, this year the 18-month-old Pakistan Wetlands Programme (PWP), a seven year long Ministry of Environment environmental initiative being implemented by the World Wide Fund for Nature, Pakistan (WWF-P) and in particular its Gilgit-located Regional Operations Base set out to “Save Shandur” through an environmental campaign aimed at solid waste management and conscious raising among participants, spectators and vendors. It was acting upon a PWP-sponsored landmark study done in 2006 by Oxford University scholar David Johnson regarding the environmental challenges facing Shandur. The PWP encouraged support from the army and police, whose duties this year included cordoning off and guarding access to the lake and other environmentally sensitive areas. The PWP got the Gilgit-Baltistan Environmental Protection Agency (NAEPA) along with Tourism departments from both the NWFP and NAs, and non-government organizations involved in the effort. Officials of the NAs Forest Department along with their counterparts at the NWFP Wildlife Department agreed to assign four rangers to environmental check posts on the road at the two entrances to Shandur. At the same time, the PWP drew together community organizations from both sides of the polo match’s competing regions to work together for a common cause. Particularly special help and consideration to the environmental effort was given by the officers and men of the Gilgit-Baltistan Scouts, a comparatively new paramilitary regiment made up from the corps of the old Gilgit Scouts and who were camped next to the PWP. They provided material, logistical and tactical assistance to the program’s staff and volunteers, helped with the maintenance of the PWP vehicles in the demanding conditions, operated a snack stall and dining room open 10 ail and provided evening traditional folk dancing and musical events. The Scouts had a fully equipped medical unit that was prepared to ok., and did aid, in any way it could. Its presence was considered to be a major contributor to the environmental initiative’s success. And while the polo players battled it out on the polo ground day after day, the volunteers maintained high-profile, periodic clean-ups of the polo ground area and marches on it, inducing a grand finale on the last day. Repeated announcements were made over the public address system encouraging spectators to be environmentally sensitive. Thirty visually friendly, blue, plastic trash bins were provided by the Gilgit-Baltistan ERA and strategically positioned by the volunteers in the bazaar. The bins were lined with locally made, heavy-duty polyurethane bags, which had the PWP and NAEPA logos printed on them. For security reasons only the liner bags were allowed to be placed in the polo ground area. Thanks in part to the public-relations blitz, the corps of environmental volunteers achieved some notable successes. Officially, 550 bags of trash averaging 16.5 pounds each, totaling about 9,232 pounds, or 4.6159 tonnes, were systematically collected by the volunteers, weighed and contents of selected bags analyzed and disposed of in an EPA approved dumpsite on the Northern Areas side of Shandur plateau.

“This year’s Save Shandur showed that with the right dedication and will, things that were in the past considered difficult or impossible can be achieved. And if it can be done at Shandur, it can be done anywhere. It is already envisioned that for next year the cleanup and conscious-raising campaigns will be expanded to include more volunteers, organizations, and cover the entire area of the event. Good fun and good environmental practices can coexist,” said Dr. Humaira Khan, the Pakistan Wetlands Programme’s coordinator for the Northern Areas.

Babusar polo tournament was organized from August 5-7, 2008 by the Tourism Department Gilgit-Baltistan , Gilgit at the highest polo ground in the world at Babusar (13,812 ft) at the highest Polo group of the world. This Polo Tournament is based on its geographical location, lucid atmosphere and newly constructed NHA road which, will provide easy access to Gilgit-Baltistan from Naran and Kaghan valleys of NWFP, the tournament was designed to signify the touristic potential of Babusar and it’s surrounding. The festival also includes Tug of war, Tent pegging, Paragliding, Photo Exhibition, Gemstone Exhibition, Handicrafts Exhibition, Trekking, Horse Riding and camp Fire. The Babusar Pass is located in District Diamer of Gilgit-Baltistan . It is located at a distance of 35 kms from KKH near Chilas, which takes 2 hours drive on road journey to Babusar. The Babusar Pass can also be accessed through Mansehra, via Kaghan Valley covering a distance of 200kms.

Gilgit has an area of 38,000 square kilometers (14,672 sq mi). The region is significantly mountainous, lying on the foothills of the Karakoram mountains, and has an average altitude of 1,500 meters (4,900ft). It is drained by the Indus River, which rises in the neighboring regions of Ladakh and Baltistan. The Gilgit-Baltistan borders the Wakhan corridor of Afghanistan to the northwest, China’s Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang to the northeast, the Indian-controlled state of Jammu and Kashmir to the south and
southeast, the Pakistani-controlled state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir to the south, and Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province to the west.

The Karakoram and the Himalayas are important to Earth scientists for several reasons. They are one of the world’s most geologically active areas, at the boundary between two colliding continents. Therefore, they are important in the study of plate tectonics. Mountain glaciers may serve as an indicator of climate change, advancing and receding with long-term changes in temperature and precipitation. These extensive ranges may have even caused climate change when they were formed over 40 million years ago. The large amounts of rock exposed to the atmosphere are weathered (broken down) by carbon dioxide This process removes the greenhouse gas from the atmosphere, and could have caused the global climate to cool, triggering an ongoing series of ice ages.


Pakistan is home to 108 peaks above 7,000 meters and probably as many peaks above 6,000 m. There is no count of the peaks above 5,000 and 4,000m. Five of the 14 highest independent peaks in the world (the eight-thousanders) are in Pakistan (four of which lie in the surroundings of Concordia; the confluence of Baltoro Glacier and Godwin Austen Glacier). Most of the highest peaks in Pakistan lie in Karakoram range (which lies almost entirely in the Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan, but some peaks above 7,000 m are included in the Himalayan and Hindukush ranges.


Most of the highest mountains in Pakistan are located in the Karakoram range, but some high rnour nins are in Himalaya (the highest of which is Nanga Parbat, globally ranked 9th, 8126m) and Hindu Kush (the highest of which is Tirich Mir, globally ranked 33rd, 7708 m). Where Great Mountain Ranges Meet (Karakoram, Himalayas and Hindu Kush Mountain Ranges) Pakistan is a land of varied and unique landscape. While high mountain ranges dominate its North, series of low mountain ranges of Suleman, Pub, Kirthar and Makran extend from North to Southwest and to South in a bone like manner. These low ranges dominate the plains and deserts to the East and warm and captivating beaches of the Arabian Sea to the South. It is, however, Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan which is endowed with most unique geographical feature in the world. It is here that the three great, lofty and spectacular mountain ranges, Karakoram, Hindukush and Himalayas meet. In an area of about 500 kms in width and 350 kms in depth, is found themost dense collection of some of the highest and precipitous peaks in the world, boasting more than 700 peaks above 6000 meters, and more than 160 peaks above 7000 meters. These include five out of the total fourteen above eight thousand meter high peaks on earth, namely the second highest rock pyramid – the K-2 (8611 m), the killer mountain Nanga Parbat (8126 m), the Hidden Peak, Gasherbrum I (8068 m), the Broad Peak (8047 m) and the Gasherbrum II (8035m). This enormous mountain wealth makes Pakistan an important mountain country, offering great opportunities for mountaineering and mountain related adventure activities. The area is aptly called a paradise for mountaineers, adventure seekers and nature lovers. The compelling charm of these high, challenging, endless sea of rugged rock and ice pinnacles lure large- number of climbers, adventure seekers and nature lovers from across the five continents to the Gilgit-Baltistan and Chitral, each year.


K2 is a rocky mountain up to 6000 meters, beyond which it becomes an ocean of snow. The exact height of the peak is 8,611 meters/28,251 feet. The mountain owes its name to a coincidence. In 1856, T. G. Montgomerie from the British Cartographic Service in India was taking down the consecutive summits by the initial of the Karakoram mountain range when doing his measurements there, adding them in the order in which he was studying them. He had no idea that K2 is in fact the second highest mountain on Earth. There was no local name attached to the mountain. Attempts were made to find a name for it in the language of the inhabitants of Baltistan, the region in which it is situated. The highlanders liked “key two”, the most, however, the way it is pronounced in English. Later on, this turned out to be “Chogori”. Chogori is a Balti word meaning King of Mountains. The name K2, however, still stands. In 1860, Captain Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen, of the Survey of India, went to the Baltistan area and surveyed the famous Shigar and Saltoro valleys. This greatly contributed to the knowledge of the area. In 1861, he started from Skardu and entered Braldu valley from Skoro-La (5,043m). He then climbed and surveyed the Chogo-lungma, Kero Lungma, Biafo and Panmah glaciers. It was from Kero Lungma that Godwin Austen climbed the Nushik pass (4,990m/l 6,371 ft) and is stated to have entered the 53-km-long Hispar glacier. He was perhaps the first European to reach it. It is a myth that the K2 peak, which was erroneously called Godwin-Austen peak, was discovered by him. It is, however, a fact that he explored the gateway to K2 (the Baltoro glacier), along with famous glaciers including Godwin-Austen glacier. This was indeed his outstanding contribution to the geography of the area.


The Himalayas are a great mountain range formed by the collision of Indo-Pakistan tectonic plate with the Asian Continent/The central Himalayan mountains are situated in Nepal, while the eastern mountains extend to the borders of Bhutan and Sikkim. Nanga Parbat massif is the western corner pillar of the Himalayas. It is an isolated range of peaks just springing up from nothing, and is surrounded by the rivers Indus and Astore. Nanga Parbat or “Nanga Parvata” means the naked mountain. Its original and appropriate name, however, is Diamir the king of mountains. Nanga Parbat (main peak) has a height of 8,126m/26,660 ft. It has three vast faces. The Raikot (Ra Kot) face is dominated by the north and south silver crags and silver plateau; the Diamir face is rocky in the beginning. It converts itself into ice fields around Nanga Parbat peak. The Rupal face is the highest precipice in the world. Reinhold Messner, a living legend in mountaineering from Italy, says that “every one who has ever stood at the foot of this face (4,500m/14,764ft) up above the Tap Alpe’, studied it or flown over it, could not help the amazement of its sheer size; it has become known as the highest rock and ice wall in the Nanga Parbat has always been associated with tragedies and tribulations until it was climbed in 1953. A lot of mountaineers have perished on Nanga Parbat since 1895. Even today it is claiming a heavy toll of human lives, mountaineers in search of adventure and thrill and in finding new and absolutely un-climbed routes are becoming its victims. The Nanga Parbat peak was discovered in the nineteenth century by Europeans. The Schlagintweit brothers, who hailed from Munich (Germany) came in 1854 to Himalayas and drew a panoramic view which is the first know picture of Nanga Parbat.


Gasherbrum in local language means “Shining Wall”. There are six Gasherbrum Peaks. Gasherbrum I, also known as Hidden Peak 8,068m/26,470ft), is the highest peak among them. A French Expedition lead by H. De Segogne made the first attempt in 1936, but I they could not climb beyond Camp V located at a height of 6,797 m. However, in 1958 an American Expedition led by Nich Clinch made the first ascent to Gasherbrum. I. Schoening and Kaufman were the first to reach the summit. The approach route to Base camp starts from Skardu through Shigar Valley and approach trek starts from Askole through Baltoro glacier.

“Hidden Peak or Gasherbrum I (8068 m)” is the llth highest mountain of the world. The British explorer M. Conway introduced the names ‘Hidden Peak’ and Gasherbrum II. In 1958 an American expedition, headed by Clinch and Schoening, climbs the summit for the very first time. On the way crossing the south spur, they use short ski and snow shoes. Pete Schoening and Andrew Kauffman got to the summit on July 4th 1975. In 1982 a German expedition headed by G. Sturm climbed the Hidden Peak. G. Sturm, M. Dacher and S. Hupfauer got via a new route in the north face to the highest point. In the same year, the very first woman reached to the summit. Moreover, the first ski descent from the top of an 8000 meter peak was also made.


The shining mountain on the Karakoram range is just the second highest peak amongst the Gasherbrum Peaks with an altitude of 8,035m/26,361ft. The first ascent made by Austrians led by Fritz Moravec along with Joseph Larch and Hans Willenpart on 8th July, 1956. They set up a base camp on the south Gasherbrum glacier. Camp 1 was set up at 6,005m/l 9,700ft. It was here that the party was forced to stay for ten days because of a severe storm. Consequently, they lost a large supply store in an avalanche. After setting up a few more camps, Fritz Moravec, Joseph Larch, and Hansenpart set up a bivouac below 7,620m/25,000ft. Inspite of frostbites suffered in the bivouac, the three reached he summit of Gasherbrum II on 8th July and came back without meeting any further accident. The climb on this peak is both on rock and ice. A high level of technical skill, physical fitness and acclimatization is required. The approach to base camp is via Skardu and takes about a week’s trekking on Baltoro Glacier. An Expedition to Gasherbrum II provides a more complete mountaineering Experience than the commonly guided Tibetan 8000m Peaks ( Shishapangma & Cho Oyu) which can be reached by Jeep road. The Walk to Gasherbrum II base camp along the Baltoro Glacier has been described as one of the best treks in the world.


The Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan are rich in flora and fauna because of varied climatic conditions and ecosystems. In spite of unscientific management and ruthless hunting in the past, wildlife in the Gilgit-Baltistan still supports rare and endangered species of mammals and birds like Marco Polo sheep, blue sheep, markhor, black bear, brown bear, chakor and ram chakor. Due to the destruction of habitat wildlife population of Gilgit-Baltistan is decreasing rapidly. According to rough estimate of late Raja Bhadur Ali Khan, (Conservator of Forests, Gilgit-Baltistan); in 1970, there were 500 Marco Polo sheep in the Khunjerab National Park, but in 2004 they were only 75, restricted to Kirchinai nallah of the valley. Similarly snow leopard and other valuable species are also decreasing. (Khan, 1970). Until 1947 almost all the important valleys, most of them now included in protected areas, supported a high density of wild animals and hunting was allowed to only a few British and high ranking local officials, rulers and persons with high social status. Further more, the area was hard to access. Hunting for the common poachers was not easy. Traditional muzzle loading guns were commonly used, but were not very effective.

Mammals: The mammalian fauna of Gilgit-Baltistan mainly belongs to Palaearctic region, which may have spread southwards from Central Asia. Fifty-four mammal species are estimated for Gilgit-Baltistan. These species consist of one shrew, 10 bats, 18 carnivores, 6 artiodactyls, 3 lagomorphs, and 16 rodents. There is only one endemic species of mammals, i.e. the woolly flying squirrel, while the Astore markhor (flare-horned markhor) can be considered near-endemic, as its distribution is restricted to a few valleys because of rugged terrain and natural barriers like rivers. The distribution of many small mammal species is very patchy and restricted to certain watersheds due to physical barriers like high mountains and rivers. Virk et al. (2003) quote Z.B. Mirza that the most diverse groups are carnivores and rodents. The rodents have high breeding capacity and are the food base for many carnivores. Species like shrews provide food base to foxes, weasels and stone martens. Large mammal species richness is higher in Gilgit-Baltistan as compared to other parts of Pakistan. Two areas are considered as a “hot spot” for large mammals diversity. These are the upper Hunza and the triangle between Indus and Astore rivers. Several large mammal species found here are endangered. These includes snow leopard, Marco Polo sheep, Himalayan brown bear, black bear, musk deer, flare horned markhor, Laddakh urial, blue sheep, and Himalayan lynx. Most of these species require large areas to maintain viable populations. Species like markhor and Ladakh urial constitute much of the remaining global populations. The current status of Marco Polo sheep and musk deer is also uncertain, as both of these species have been persecuted heavily in the past. The population of musk deer is very low and fragmented. Its status in Northern Areas is endangered and it is listed in both the IUCN Red Data Book and in CITES Appendix-I. Marco Polo sheep is not a permanent resident of Pakistan but occasionally migrates into the Khunjerab National Park through the border passes of Khunjerab, Killick, and Mintaka. The area around the Khunjerab pass provides suitable summer habitat for this species, but it has not migrated this location in the recent past probably due to greater human presence. The Chinese have also erected fence along the Khunjerab pass, which has further reduced this species’ crossing into Pakistan. The other possible place where this species can cross into Pakistan is through the Killick and Mintaka passes where its sighting has been less in recent years. Only a herd of 46 animals was sighted in the area during July 1997 by local herders and Game Watchers of KNP (Virk et al., 2003). The most comprehensive account of large mammals has been given by Schaller (1977) and Roberts (1997). However, the occurrence of some of the species as Red dog or Indian wild dog (Coun alpinus) and Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang) is still a controversy. There are reports that these species occur in the Shimshal Pamir, the area next to Sinkiang, China (Rasool, 1998). Earlier accounts suggest occasional crossing of these species from China into Pakistan around the Broldu and Oprnag rivers in Shimshal Pamir, but there is no confirmation of their recent sightings.

Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is a beautiful Palaearctic cat, which blends well in rocky terrain in the mountains of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. In summer months it ascends to the alpine zone, returning in winter to the oak forest to forage for food, which consists mainly of grass eating animals. Its fur is very soft and luxuriant and thick in winter. It is gray-brown in summer, paling in winter with pure white under parts. Its tail has long fur. It is vulnerable to illegal hunters mainly because of its valuable pelt. Occasionally it is poisoned by nomadic shepherds to prevent goat losses. Himalayan lynx (Felis lynx isabellina) occurs in alpine slopes in the extreme of Northern Areas. It is a powerful and expert climber, generally nocturnal but occasionally hunting by day in remote areas. Its usual food is marmot, pika, hare, snow cock and other birds, but can also overpower large animals like sheep, goat and even markhor.

Wolf (Canis lupis) is found throughout the Northern Areas. It hunts domestic livestock, wild ungulates (ibex, markhor, blue sheep etc.) and other small rodents. Himalayan black bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) occurs in pockets in Iran and Balochistan and is widespread in the Himalayas from China to Russia. It lives in caves in the remote, mountains areas and descends at night to feed, mainly on small insects, but it is also eats crops, particularly ripe maize.

Brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a holarctic species found in alpine and sub alpine scrub zones in Chitral, in Deosai in the Gilgit-Baltistan, around the slopes of Nanga Parbat and in Astore, Swat and Indus Kohistan. It is also found in Pamir and the Hindu Kush. The brown bear eats insets, voles and succulent shoots. It hibernates during winter from the end of October until the following spring. Musk deer (Moschus moshiferus) is another palaearctic species found in the northern mountains, including Hazara, Kashmir and the Himalayan ranges eastwards to Nepal and Sikkim. Its usual habitat is birch scrub and bushy upland regions. At times it moves with nomadic goats. Although vulnerable to snow leopard and wolf attacks, its main enemy is human being who kills it for its valuable musk pod, which is used to make scent and other cosmetics. Siberian or Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex) is a palaearctic species found in the high mountains of Chitral, the Northern Areas, Hazara, Indus Kohistan and possibly in the Safad Koh mountains. This ibex is also distributed in Afghanistan, the Pamir the Altai and the Shah mountains. In Pakistan it stays above 6700 meters, but during the rut season in December it may descend to below 2000 meters. It mainly browses, but also grazes when lush grass is available.

Urial, Shapu (Ovis orientalis) is found in the northern mountains, the western ranges, the Salt Range, the Kalachitta Range and Balochistan. It is a close relative of the wild sheep found in North America, Europe and central and northern Asia. It is generally found in arid country where tree growth is sparse. In the Salt Range it inhabits areas of dense acacia scrub. Male herds segregate from females, mixing only to breed. In the rut season males fight to express dominance over each other. In Gilgit-Baltistan it is found in Askloi valley (Shiger), Kharpocho (skardu), Ghursey (Khaplu) and Astore valley.

Marco Polo sheep (Ovis amon polii) is found in a very small area (less than 26 hectares) of high rolling terrain in extreme northern Hunza in the Kilik and Khunjerab passes into which it migrates from China during winter. Its main population is found in the greater Pamir mountains, in Wakhan, Afghanistan, in Tajikistan and China. It shares its habitat with the snow leopard and the wolf, and is hunted by both. Alpine or Altai weasel (Mustela altaica) is found in the palaearctic zone of Pakistan, mainly in Baltistan and on the slopes of Nanga Parbat. It is also found in Kaghan valley above 3200 meters. Like the stoat, it feeds on pikas, hamsters and other rodents, birds and insects. Common otter (Lutra lutra) lives in the cold mountain rivers and streams of northern Pakistan. It is an agile swimmer, diving for fish. It has a distinctive bark, and when alarmed lets a loud cry.

Marmot (Marmota caudata and Marmota bobock) are two palaearctic species found in the northern mountains, including Hazara district, near the high glaciers at 3200 to 4850 meters. They live in burrows amongst rocks, collecting large quantities of food to last them through the snowy months. Bat (Isabelline serotine eptesicus isabellinus) is found in Gilgit. They hibernate in winter. Out of seven Pipistrelle species of bats found in Pakistan two are palaearctic. These are the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) found in Gilgit-Baltistan. The common pipistrelle has been known to fly with open mouth emitting ultrasonic notes. Unlike other bats it is mainly active around dawn and dusk. Hemprich’s long -eared bat (Otonycteris hemprichi) is found in Gilgit. It has conspicuous long eared and flies very low to the ground hunting for insects. Grey long eared bat (Plecotus austriacus) is a palaearctic bat found in the Gilgit-Baltistan and the Kaghan valley. It roosts with its ears tucked under its forelegs in the roofs of houses, tunnels and other dark areas. It is capable of flying very slowly and can hover, enabling it to pick insects from the surface of leaves.

The tube-nosed bat (Murina huttoni) is a palaearctic species and has been recorded in Nalter in the Northern Areas and in the Murree hills. It roosts mainly in tree cavities. Royals high mountain vole (Alticola roylei) is found in the Gilgit-Baltistan, the Kaghan valley, Swat and the Safed Koh. It is nocturnal and partly diurnal. It lives in burrows in stony soil from about 8,000 ft up to the permanent snow line. It collects and stores food for winter consumption. It is eaten by stoats, weasels, kestrels and even the brown bear. Chinese birch mouse (Scista concolor) is found in Gilgit-Baltistan and northern parts of the Kaghan valley up to a height of 13,200 ft and hibernates in winter. It has a semi prehensile tail. Its teeth are strong enabling it to rack seeds, but also feeds on insects. Migratory hamsters (Cricetulus migratorius) are found in Northern Areas, the western mountains and northern Balochistan above 4,400 ft. It has well developed cheek pouches, which it fills with food for chewing later on or for storing. It is aggressive, especially when cornered, and will attack jerboas and frogs. Royal pika (Ochotona royalei) is found in Hazara, Gilgit and Baltistan. The long eared pika (Ochotona macrotis) is also reported from extreme northeastern Baltistan. But it is very scarce. Russian scientists considers it to be a subspecies of Royal pika. These are active during the day, gathering vegetation to store for winter.

Avi-fauna: According to Virk et al. (2003) the Gilgit-Baltistan have one of the most diverse avi fauna of the mountain region of the world. But little information is available on the distribution, status, diversity and ecology of many of these bird species. The most comprehensive account of the avifauna of Pakistan comes from Robert (1992, 1991). Some researchers have documented bird diversity of certain parts of Gilgit-Baltistan. These include studies on avifauna of the Khunjerab National Park (Blumstein, 1995), Deosai plateau in Baltistan (Khan and Rafiq, 1998; Woods et al., 1997) and in the Nalter Wildlife Sanctuary (Sheikh, 2001). Much of the information contained in this section is derived from these publications.

The Karakoram and Himalayan ranges separate the uplands of Central Asia from South Asia, forming a barrier between two large areas of Asia which are different climatically. The geographic location of Gilgit-Baltistan make them ideal for many bird species. The area is a staging, transitory, breeding, migratory and native ground for many species. In total, about 230 species of birds have been estimated for this region. These include passage migrants, vagrants, residents, breeding and irregular visitors. Many of these species breed in Northern Areas and are found over a large range. The estimated number of birds species here is based on published records, distribution range maps and discussion in Roberts (1992, 1991). But the lack of reliable and consistently published data of the Gilgit-Baltistan indicates the need for long term ornithological studies to determine the distribution and abundance of birds. Studies indicate that the area is rich in avifauna For example 109 birds species have been recorded from the Deosai plateau (Khan and Rafiq, 1998). Similarly, 87 species have been reported from KNP. Nalter valley in particular and lower Hunza, Gilgit and Astore valleys in general have been studied by Sheikh (2001) describing the ecology, breeding biology, distribution and species diversity of about 110 species .A large number of warblers, buntings, red start were found to be breeding here. There are some rare species which not only occur in the area but also breed here. These include lammergeyer and the golden eagle. There is a possibility that species like peregrine falcon also breed in some high altitudes valleys, particularly in Ghizer district. A few sightings of lesser kestrel have also been reported in lower Hunza near the Hunza river by Sheikh (2001). Some of the restricted range species like snow partridge and Himalayan monal pheasant are extremely rare and may be at the verge of extinction from many of their earlier strongholds. The most diverse group of birds in Gilgit-Baltistan is the passseriformes species. There are mostly warblers, tits, fly catchers and buntings. BirdLife International (2001) reported 27 species of Pakistan birds which are threatened internationally. Out of these, several species are found in Gilgit-Baltistan. There may be several more species, which are threatened nationally or face local extinction. For example, snow partridge and Himalayan monal pheasant are facing local extinction from many valleys. Similarly, large-billed bush warbler and tytlers warblers are rare species, but not included in the report of Bird Life International. A list of threatened species is given in the following table. These species have small and fragmented population and are threaten by loss and fragmentation of their habitat. (Virk et al., 2003). Snow partridge (Lerwa lerwa) is found in stony habitats in high areas above the tree line of the Himalayas, the Northern Areas and the Safed Koh mountains. It feeds on new grass in areas clear of snow. Himalayan snow cock (Tetraogallus himalayensis) is found in the Gilgit-Baltistan, Chitral and Safad Koh region above 3600 meters. It cockles loudly in the morning and evenings all year round, and is a very fast flyer, beating its wings during the initial part of flight, then gliding with wings slightly closed in swoop. It usually lives where the ibex can be found and eats succulent plants. Chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) is resident in the northern and western mountains of Pakistan at minimum altitudes of 600 meters rising to 4500 meters. It is found in coveys of up to 40 birds, and eats insects, seeds, soft leaves, bulbs and roots dusk, emits a rapidly –repeated “chukor-chukor” which accounts for its name. Snow pigeon (Coiumba leuconata) is a palaearctic pigeon found in the Gilgit-Baltistan and the Kaghan valley up to 4000 meters. It roosts on cliffs and nests in rocks, holes and crevices. It flies down in large flocks to the lower valleys during early morning, returning to its roots in the evening. Pintail (Anas acuta) Alert and wary, this is one of the most elegant of the ducks, with a distinctive, long, pointed tail. It often feeds at night, especially where there is much disturbance. It is a good walker, holding the long neck erect, and the wings make a distinct hissing noise in flight. It is a common sight in winter throughout the areas on jheels or coastal waters. Common teal (Anas crecca) Abundant throughout the area in winter, this is a very agile duck, twisting and turning in flight and springing off the water with characteristic dash when alarmed. The drake looks rather dark at distance, but closer up it reveals attractive colors. Like other dabblers, it feeds mainly on vegetable matter. Sometimes it is seen in huge flocks, but usually occurs in much smaller parties (Woodcock, 1980).


The Gilgit-Baltistan have many rivers, streams and alpine lakes fed by snowmelt and glacier waters. The freshwater resources contain several fish species which are an important component of the region’s biodiversity. The fish fauna here is relatively poor due to high turbidity, low water temperature, high water speed, low benthic productivity, and long stretches of narrow river gorges (Rafiq, 2002). The fish are predominately Palaearctic with elements of Central Asian highlands. The fish diversity in Gilgit-Baltistan is not yet described with greater detail despite its biological and evolutionary significance. However, some recent studies report there are about 17 species of native fish and 3 of exotic fish, belonging to five families (Table 8). Out of these 17 native species, four are endemic to Gilgit-Baltistan, while several others have ranges confined to one or two localities. For example, Triplophysa stoliczkai, Ptychobarbus conirostis and Schizopygopsis stoliczkai are only found in eastern waters up to Kachura. During the Hunza/Gojal expedition 2000 undertaken by Oxford University Museum of Natural History and the Pakistan Museum of Natural History, specimens of three species of fish were collected; one of these reported as endemic here (Virk et al., 2003). The number of fish species found in high altitude streams and lakes is low. For example, only three fish species have been recognized from Deosai. These include Triplophysa stoliczkai, Diptyichus maculatus, and Ptychobarbus conirostis (Woods et al., 1997). Among exotic species, brown trout was introduced in Gilgit agency during the early 1900s. This species is now well established and is found in most of the rivers and lakes of Gilgit and Ghizer districts. Particularly upstream of the Ghizer river and its tributaries contain a large number of brown trout (AKRSP/DFID, 2000). Other exotic species include North America rainbow trout and Chinese carp introduced for aquaculture. However, it is not clear whether these exotics breed naturally. But their distribution is very limited and they are found only in those water bodies where they were stocked.


The Gilgit Baltistan is one of the most spectacular regions of Pakistan. Here the world’s three mightiest mountain ranges – the Karakorams, the Hindukush and the Himalayas – meets. The entire Gilgit-Baltistan is like a paradise for mountaineers, climbers, trekkers, hikers and anglers. The region has a rich cultural heritage and variety of rare flora and fauna.

Historically, the area ha remained a flash point of political and military rivalries amongst the Russian, British and Chinese empires. Immediately after the end of British rule in the sub-continent in 1947, the people of this region decided to join Pakistan through a popular local revolt against the government of Maharaja of Kashmir.

The Gilgit Baltistan have always been at the crossroads of conquerors, raiders and travelers. Therefore, its history has been deeply influenced by the various incidences of history. The Gilgit-Baltistan have a very rich history which can be understood through periodizations made by historians. It is said that small chieftains ruled Gilgit and Baltistan, until the beginning of the 19th century. They had to grapple with trivial issues amongst each other Taking advantage of their weaknesses and mutual rivalries, the Dogra regime of Kashmir annexed these territories around the middle of the 19th century even though they found the control of the area difficult. Baltistan was administered directly by the Kashmir Government as a part of District Laddakh with Headquarters at Leh. The British Indian Government got attraction in the region following the political developments in Russian and Chinese Turkistan during the late 19th century. The history of Gilgit Baltistan can be divided into the following periods:

Pre-History: The earliest inhabitants of the Gilgit-Baltistan can be traced back to 5th millennium BC They were known as Rock Art People as they started the tradition of rock carving which was continued by their successors. They were hunters and lived in rocks. There is a general perception that they had religion having faith in mountains.

Megalith Builders: These people came from Chitral and Swat and had the tradition of building large megaliths. They used to have a ceremonial carved stone in the middle which was worshiped. They used metals like copper, bronze, iron, gold and silver. They developed irrigated fields and also depended on livestock like goat, sheep and other cattle. They lived in mud houses as temporary settlement.

Dardic People: According to some historians, the Dardics lived in the present Gilgit Baltistan during the Achaemenian Empire (4th century B.C). Their economic activities included mining and trading gold. This led to the establishment of a trade route with Central Asia and China.

Scytho Parthians: Various rock inscriptions around Chilas suggest that the Scythians from Central Asia had established their rule in this area around the first century BC The rule of Scythians resulted in the introduction of Kharoshti script and Taxila style stupas and establishment of close trade relations with Taxila. The Scythian rule lasted only two generations between 1 B.C and 1 A.D. This was followed by the Gondophares branch of Parthians. The influence of the Parthians on local culture is evident from the rock carvings of this era which depict some new themes other than those of the earliest inhabitants.

The Kushans: The Khushans moved to Northern Areas between 1 B.C and 1 A.D who had already established their rule in Central Asia and China. They used gold for trade purposes and a route passed through Northern Area which was perhaps the Silk Route on which the current Karakoram Highway
has been constructed.

The Post Kushans: After the Khushans, the Sassanis from Persia controlled the area in the beginning of 3rd century AD. During that period, Budhism continued to flourish and this area remained a famous crossing point for travel to and from India, China and Central Asia.

The Huns: These were tribes from Central Asia who were warriors. They ruled through several Shina and Brushaski kings called ‘Rajas’. By that time, Budhism was still on its way of spreading.


With the decline of Huns, the Rajas became independent. From 612 to 750 AD, the areas were ruled by Patoal Shahi Dynasty who were Budhists and had close ties with Chinese empire. Between 7th Century and early 19th century, parts of the Gilgit-Baltistan were ruled by succession of various dynasties including: Tarkhans of Gilgit, the Maghlots of Nagar, the Ayasho of Hunza, the Burshai of Punyal, the Maqpoons of Skardu, the Anchans of Shigar and the Yabgos of Khaplu. In the beginning of 8th century AD the Tarkhan rulers embraced Islam. In the medieval times, Gilgit-Baltistan remained outside Mughal control although Akber conquered Kashmir and parts of Baltistan while Gilgit retained its independent status until the Gilgit-Baltistan came under the control of Dogra rulers of Kashmir in the middle of 18th century. By the end of 19th century, the British Government created the Gilgit agency and appointed a political agent, under a lease agreement with Maharaja Harising of Kashmir. In 1947, the people of Gilgit Baltistan fought against the Maharaja and got independence. Since then, it is being administered under the Federal Government of Pakistan as Federally Administered Northern Areas.


The region is home to some of the world’s highest mountain ranges-the main ranges are the Karakoram and the western Himalayas. The Pamir mountains are to the north, and the Hindu Kush lies to the west. Amongst the highest mountains are K2 (Mount Godwin-Austen) and Nanga Parbat, the latter being one of the most feared mountains in the world. Three of the world’s longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan – the Biafo Glacier, the Baltoro Glacier, and the Batura Glacier.


The climate of Gilgit-Baltistan varies from region to region, surrounding mountain ranges creates sharp variations in weather. The eastern part has a moist zone of western Himalayas but going toward Karakoram and Hindu Kush the climate dries considerably. There are towns like Gilgit and Chilas that are very hot during the day in summer, yet cold at night, and valleys like Astore, Khaplu, Yasin, Hunza, and Nagar where the temperatures are cold even in summer.


Nestled amidst the staggeringly beautiful snow capped peaks, Gilgit Serena Hotel is truly one of its kinds. The Hotel stands at the foot of the Karakoram mountain range commanding breathtaking vista of the rugged landscape. This aesthetically charming Hotel lies only three kilometers from the legendary Silk Route. Conveniently accessible from all directions, Swat Serena Hotel represents a modern oasis of comfort and luxury surrounded by the breathtaking beauty of nature at its best, and an imposing view of the lofty Karakoram peaks including Mount Rakaposhi. Gilgit, the capital of the Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, is a flourishing town that has expanded rapidly to about 150,000 inhabitants since the Karakoram Highway (KKH) was constructed back in 1978, connecting Gilgit with the rest of Pakistan and China. Gilgit is the hub of Gilgit-Baltistan as its bazaars attract traders from all over Pakistan and China. A variety of languages are spoken as Chinese silk and chinaware, other fabrics and handicrafts, food stuff, and spices exchange hands here.
Hotel Facilities
icons 42 Rooms including Suites
icons Complementary Airport Transfer Service
icons Dumani Restaurant, offering Pakistani, Local, Chinese, and Continental Specialties
icons Jutial Lounge, offering beverages and light snacks
icons Garden BBQ with live music from May till October
icons Badminton and Table Tennis Courts, Children’s Play Area, and Swimming Pool facilities
icons Conference Facilities
icons 24-hour Business Centre
icons Wi-Fi Access
icons Satellite TV with International Channels
icons Currency Exchange
icons Room Service, Valet & Laundry
icons 24-hour Doctor on Call

In the land of Shangri-La, the Shigar Fort Residence stands out as a modern, full-amenity hotel that pays homage to the incredible history and culture of its surrounds. Step outside this former palace and behold the legendary route to the Himalaya’s second highest peak, K-2. No expense was spared by the Aga Khan Cultural Service Pakistan in restoring and extending the original site, known as Fong-Khar, or “Palace of the Rock”. The Service is part of the Aga Khan Development Network, an organization well known for its faithful restorations. The Shigar Fort Residence is a one-of-a-kind heritage guesthouse that features the lovingly restored original 17th century architecture of a Raja Fort Palace. Yet, all of the modern conveniences demanded by today’s tourist and business traveler are available. In total there are three hotel structures: the Fort/Palace, the Old House and the Garden House. Each of the 20 rooms in the transformed Palace has full amenities, and the hotel is completely modern in terms of its facilities. Business travelers will be delighted with the large, full feature Conference Room and the 24-Hour Business Center. All sorts of conferences, seminars, and meetings are booked in the Conference Room every year. For instance, recently, a group of Pakistani real estate developers hosted a seminar that showed their sales force how to sell leads to rich residents of the country as well as to an international audience. The developers were all greeted at the airport with the complementary shuttle transfer provided by the Shigar Fort Residence. They were very impressed by the high quality cuisine served at the Fonghar Restaurant – a place to relax and enjoy the best dishes from Pakistan, China and Europe. If the developers wanted to snack or perhaps arrange a private party, they simply popped into the Resident’s Lounge. There is a historical Vine Garden open during the summer months that offers visitors authentic Pakistani BBQ. Visiting Texans would feel rigtht at home there. Tourists can be guided through the local museum, which features local artifacts, original carvings and many other items associated with the rich architectural history of the local grounds. Even if you are in Shangri-La, you still may need to keep up to date on current news and business conditions. The Lobby Lounge at the Shigar Fort Residence offers satellite channels to keep you plugged in to current events and business news. You can exchange your money 24 hours a day with the Forex Service on premises. A phone call from your room will put you in touch with room service, the hotel valet, even the laundry. And if all the good fun makes you a little dizzy, a physician is on call at all hours. Shigar Fort Residence proves that you can step back to the 17th century without giving up any of the comfort and convenience of the 21st century.

Shangri-La was established in 1983 with the opening of the first Resort Hotel in Skardu, Baltistan.It was named”HEAVEN ON EARTH” because of its spectacular beauty, and breathtaking view and peaceful atmosphere. Shangrila Resort Hotel was founded by the late Brig.(Retd) Muhammad Aslam Khan, the first commander of the Northern Scouts who liberated the Northern areas in 1948. Shangrila was named after a book titled “LOST HORIZON” by James Hilton. In the book, the author narrates a fictious tale in which an aeroplane crash landed near a riverbed, in the early 1920’s. The surviving passengers came across some Buddhist monks from a nearby temple and sought their help. They were taken to a beautiful lamasery filled with a variety of fruits and flowers. The monks looked quite young, although they claimed to be hundreds of years old. The idyllic place was called Shangrila,a Chinese word meaning ” HEAVEN ON EARTH”.

We would like to introduce Shangrila Heaven on Earth, which is situated in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. This region has some of the finest Tourism attractions in the world, such as K-2( 8611.M ) 2nd highest peak on earth. Deosai Plains the longest, widest and highest plateau in the world, the fast flowing River Indus which starts from Ladakh and snakes its way through the Karakoram and Himalayan ranges, along picturesque valleys, glaciers, natural wild life, forests and historical monuments, dating back thousands of years and across the country into the Arabian sea.

Baltistan is a beautiful region in northern Pakistan, situated in the Karakoram Mountain Range just to the south of K-2, the world’s second highest mountain. Skardu- the capital city of district Baltistan is accessible by a 45-minutes flight from Islamabad. It offers fascinating views of three highest mountain ranges of the world, The Himalayas, The Karakoram and The Hindukush. It takes 20 hour is by-road journey from Islamabad to Skardu. Baltistan Continental Hotel is ideally located in the heart of Skardu. It is also a mid-point for all the tourist spots in Skardu city. One of the most beautiful and fascinating lakes of the world- “Satpara Lake” is located at a distance of about 7 kilometers from Baltistan Continental Hotel. Satpara Lake is renowned for its peacefulness, fresh blue water and continually changing scenery caused by changing weather and seasons. The main market of Skardu is at a walking distance from Hotel. Baltistan Continental Hotel is one of the finest hotels offering a warm welcome and the ideal location for relaxing after a busy day discovering the beauties of the beautiful Baltistan. Baltistan Continental Hotel has also a restaurant where all kinds of local, traditional and continental cuisines are available. Baltistan Continental Hotel is ideally situated for those wishing to explore the beautiful Baltistan. We provide efficient and highly satisfactory services to our valuable guests.

Named after the famous Karakoram Peak Mashabrum the hotel is located at the entrance of Skardu, the capital city of Baltistan. It is the largest hotel in Baltistan having 66 numbers of Guest Rooms with open area of 6 acres on the right bank of beautiful Hargisa stream.

The Hotel DewaneKhas was opened in 2004 the heart of Skardu City, owned and managed by Musa Khan, who has spent 15 years in the Western service industry, the DewaneKhas boasts a skilled & hospitable staff. Musa Khan speaking excellent English understands the needs of Western clientele, taking the long term view of tourism in the area, looking after the interest of all visitors. “The DewaneKhas is also the only Restaurant that is open all season in Skardu”.

icons Comfortable and immaculately clean, carpeted, insulated double rooms.
icons Satellite television.
icons 24 hour Hot water with western bathrooms, some featuring bathtub and shower facilities.
icons 8 rooms with excellent views of the mountains, Kharpocho Fort, and a section of the Indus River.
icons Wireless Broadband Internet Service.
icons Airport Pick & Drop.
icons Highly responsive and hospitable staff.
icons Easy access to an outdoor patio and a sun balcony with an excellent view.
icons The only family style restaurant in town, considered the best by the 2008 Lonely Planet.
icons Hugely popular with local clientele.
icons Featuring excellent local food, Pakistani food, Continental food, Chinese food, and a good selection for vegetarians.

HOTEL YURT AND YAK SARAI, providing unique and complete accomodation for adventures travelling in the area of baltistan known as Little Tibet. Is located is Skardu, Baltistan, anciently known as Little Tibet, an area where you will encounter the most dramatic contrasts found in nature. Dominating your stay are the inspirinal mountains of the Karakoram range, the highest snow capped peaks in the world, jeting into the clouds at every bend of your trek or tour. At your feet is the mighty Indus river, with its underlating gentle and angry flows. Along the Indus valley, at more than 7000 feet, are villages situated among vast and dunes and lush green fields. Visiting these villages is like stopping at an oasis in a desert surrounded by glaciers, soaring peaks and rushing rivers.

These Baltis here are descendents of the Tibetan nomads. They were shepherds who moved from the high plateau of Tibet to the lower valleys of Baltistan before the 7th century. They still speak an archaic Tibetan and believe in the deity of the mountains known as Sla Lamos.

You will see how Baltis living here are retained their simple, traditional life growing apricots, wheat, potatoes and vegetables and grazing buffalo, sheep and goats in Baltistan’s five principal valleys of Skardu, Rondu, Kharmong, Shigar and Kaplu.

Located in the heart of the district headquarter and 80km from the Gilgit airport, Hotel Green Palace is a preferred choice for corporate, leisure and foreign travelers, while offering a variety of rooms, stylish restaurants and business facilities, Hotel Green Palace is the only well-equipped hotel in the area which has been established to promote tourism and improve the living standards of the people of Gilgit Baltistan. When it comes to serve Hotel Green Palace shows the tradition of hospitality of the people of Gilgit Baltistan in serving their clients. Some of the typical services are mensioned below:

icons Conference hall for meetings, conferences and workshops
icons Stay and dine: We provide a varying variety of food ranging from local to continental food.
icons 24 hour Room Service.
icons Outside Catering Service.
icons Art & Craft Shop.
icons Jeweler Shop.
icons Pharmacy.
icons Laundry Shop.
icons Traditional shop
icons Satellite Television
icons Outdoor swimming pool (seasonal)

4 Timbarra Crescent,  O’Malley ACT 2606 (Australia)
Tel: 61-2-62901676, 61-2-62901676, 62902769, 62901879 & 62901031 Fax: 61-2-62901073 Email:
Postal Address: PO Box 684, Mawson ACT 2607 (Australia)

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: PST -4 hours, GMT +1 hours (Thursday, Friday are off days) Chancery Address: Hofzeile 13, A-1190 Vienna (Austria) Phone: (+43-1) 3687381-82 Fax: (+43-1) 3671831, 3687376 Email:
Embassy of Pakistan Time Difference: From April to October (Same as PST) From November to March (-1 PST), Weekly Holidays:Saturday & Sunday Chancery Address: 30 Attaturk Avenue, Baku, 370069, Azerbaijan Phone: (994-12) 4360839, 4360840 Fax: (994-12) 4360841
EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: -2 hours PST , +3 hours GMT , Weekly Holidays: Friday & Saturday Chancery Address: Building No. 35, Road No. 1901, Block 319, Manama/Al-Hoora, Kingdom of Bahrain. Phone: (+973) 17244113 Fax: (+973) 17255960 Email:


HIGH COMMISSION OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: PST + 06.00 hours GMT, + 01.00 hour PST, Weekly Holiday : Friday & Saturday Chancery Address: NE(C) 2, Road # 71, Gulshan II, Dhaka Phone: 008802-8825388-9 Fax: 8850673 & 8813316 Email:

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN 57 Avenue Delleur 1170 Brussels
Tel: +32 (0)2 673 80 07
Telex: 61816 Parep Brussels

Address : Private Bag 5122, Limbe, Blantyre , Malawi .
Telephone: (265-1)-844500 Fax: (265-1)-843448

Embassy of Pakistan Time Difference: -4 hrs PST(Winter), -3 hrs PST(Summer) (Mon-Fri) Chancery
Address: Emerika Bluma 17, 71000, Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina Phone: +387 33 211 836 Fax: +387 33 211 837 Email:

Chancery address: SHIS QL-12, Conjunto-02, Casa-19, Lago Sul, Brasilia- DF. CEP: 71630-225 Telephone: (+55-61) 3364-1632, 3364-1634, Fax: (+55-61) 3248-0246 Time:
PST -8 hours (summer), PST -7 hours (winter), Weekly Holidays: Saturday & Sunday E-mail:

HIGH COMMISSION OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: -PST +3 hours, Weekly Holidays: Friday & Sunday Chancery Address: No.8, Simpang 31, Jalan Bunga Jasmine Kampong Beribi, Gadong BE 1118, Bandar Seri Begawan. brunei Darussalam Phone: 00673-2424600 Fax: 00673-2424606

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference:  -3 hours PST   Chancery Address: Interpred WTC 36 Dragan Tsankov Blvd Office 102, 1040, Sofia, Bulgaria
Phone: (+359-2) 9719619 Fax: (+359-2) 9710194  Email:

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: PST +2 hours and GMT + 7, Weekly Holidays: Saturday &Sunday Chancery Address: House No:45, Street No.310, Boeung Keng Kang-1, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Phone: (+855-23) 996890 &91 Fax: (+855-23) 992113 Email:
CANADA (Toronto) 
Consulate General of Pakistan 
Suite 202, 1120 Finch Avenue West, North York, ON M3J 3H7, Canada
Telephone: 416-250-1255 , 416-250-1256, 416-250-6654, 416-849-0046 , 416-849-0047
Fax: (416) 250-1321

Address : Avenue Andrade Corvo, 25, 2 Andar C. Postal No. 42 Praia ( Cape Verde)  Telephone: (+238) 2613133 , Fax: (+238) 2613000 Time: PST -6 hours E- Mail:

Chancery address: Avenue Charles de Gaulle (Face Alimentation Toumai) Quarter Bololow, P.O. Box : 5566, N’Djamena ( Chad )Telephone: (235) 518331, Fax: (235) 524137 Email:

Address: Embassy of Pakistan, Dongzhimen Wai Dajie, Sanlitun, Beijing-100600.
Embassy Reception: (Area code 0086-10) 65322504. Embassy Reception: (Area code 0086-10) 65326660 plus extension. Fax No: (Area code 0086-10) 65322715.

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference:  PST -10, Weekly Holidays: Saturday &Sunday   Chancery
Address: Embassy of Pakistan, Espoz-2336, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile Phone: 0056-2-9538686-87
Fax: 0056-2-9538691 Email:

Address: Diogonal 109 No. 18-72, Santa Fe de Bogota- Colombia
Telephone: (+571) 213-7828 Fax: (+574) 311-5014 E-mail:

Address : B.P. 7745-8915, Kinshasa , Democratic Republic of Congo Telephone: 22413 25545 / 2438 Fax: 243043711

Address: Pasariceya ul 12, 10000 ZAGREB, Croatia
Telephone: (+385-01) 3646160/1, Fax: (+385-01) 3646160
Time: PST -4 hours (winter), PST- 3 hours (summer)
E-Mail: ,

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference:  – 10 Hours PST   Chancery Address: 5ta Ave. No.2606,entre 26 y 28, Miramar Playa Havana, Cuba Phone: (53-7) 214-1151 & 214-1152 Fax: (53-7) 214-1154 Email:

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: Monday to Friday: 10:00-12:00 & Wednesday: 1500-17:00 Chancery Address: Embassy of Pakistan, Valeursvej 17, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark Phone: +45-39 62 11 88 Fax: +45-39 40 10 70 Email:
EGYPT (Cairo) 
EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: PST – 3 hours, GMT-2 hours in winter, PST-2 hours , GMT-1 hours in summer , Weekly Holidays: Friday &Saturday Chancery Address: 8, El Saluli Street, Dokki, Giza Cairo, Egypt Phone: (+20-2) 37487806, 37487677, 37604816-17 Fax: (+20-2) 37480310 Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.”>,
ETHOPIA (Addis Ababa)
EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: Chancery Address: House No. 2038, Kebele – 03, K.K. Bole, P.O.Box No. 19795, Addis Ababa Phone: +251-116188395, +251-6188293 Fax: +251-116188394 Email:
FRANCE (Paris)
EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: PST -3 hours (summer) -4 hours (winter), GMT +1 hour, Weekly Holidays: Saturday & Sunday Chancery Address: 18, Rue Lord Byron, 75008 Paris Phone: (+33-1) 145622332 Fax: (+33-1) 45628915 Email:

Address : Ansatie 5, Box 560, FI-01741 VANTAA, Finland
Telephone: (358-9) 8955 3377, Fax: (358-9) 8955 3381
Time: PST -2 hours (summer), PST -3 hours (winter), Weekly Holidays: Saturday & Sunday E-mail:, Heikki.Timmonen@machinery.fl

Address : 21, Picton Street , P.O. Box 930 , Banjul (The Gambia )
Telephone: (+220) -8601084, Fax: (+220) -4229444, 4227044
E- Mail:,

Address: Schaper Str 29 10719, Berlin
Tel:    030-21244299,   030-21244499
Fax:  030-21244210

GREECE (Athens)
Embassy of Pakistan Time Difference: Chancery Address: 6–Loukianou Street, Kolonaki, 106 75Athens, Greece Phone: + 30 210 7290214, + 30 210 7290122 Fax: + 30 210 7257641 Email:

ADDRESS: 1125 Budapest Adonis u. 3/A Hungary (EU)
TELEPHONE:+ 36 1 355-8017,+36 1 355-8210
Fax: + 36 1 375-1402

Consulate General of Pakistan Chancery Address: Room 3505, 35/F, Two Chinachem Exchange Square, 338 King’s Road, North Point, Hong Kong Phone: (852) 2827 1966, 2827 0681, 2827 0245 Fax: 2827 6786 Email:

INDIA (New Delhi) 
Embassy of Pakistan Time Difference: – 00:30 hours, GMT +5:30 hours, Weekly Holidays: Saturday-Sunday Chancery Address: 2/50-G, Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi-110021 Phone: (+ 91-11) 26110601, 26110602, 26110605 Fax: (+ 91-11) 26872339 Email:

EMBASSY OF PAKISTANTime Difference: PST +2 hours and GMT + 7, Weekly Holidays: Saturday&Sunday Chancery Address: Jalan Mega Kunigan Bart Blok E.3.9 Kav. 5-8, Mega Kuningan Jakarta Selatan 12950 Phone: +62-21-57851836-8 Fax: +62-21-57851645 Email:

IRAN (Tehran) 
Embassy of Pakistan Time Difference:  0830 hours to 1600 hrs(Sat – Wed)   Chancery Address: Block # 1, Aitemadzadeh Street, West Doctor Fatemi Avenue, Tehran, Iran Phone: +98 21 6694489, +98 21 6694488 Fax: +98 21 66944898 Email:

Chancery address: House No. 14, Street No. 7, Mohallah No. 609, Al-Mansour, Baghdad. Telephone: (+88-216-8980-1745)
Time: PST -1 hours (summer), PST -2 hours (winter) E-mail:

Ailesbury Villa, !-B, Ailesbury Road, Ballsbridge, Dublin-4.
Tel : +353-1-2613032-33
Fax: +353-1-2613007

ITALY (Rome) 
EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference:  -3 (summer), PST -4 (winter)   Chancery Address: Via Della Camilluccia 682, 00135, Rome Italy Phone: (0039-06)-36301775 & 3294836 Fax: (0039-06) 36301936 Email:

JAPAN (Tokyo) 
EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: Monday to Friday: Chancery Address: 4-6-17, Minami-Azabu,Minato-Ku, Tokyo 106-0047 Phone: 03-5421-7741-42 Fax: 03-5421-3610 Email:

JORDAN (Amman) 
EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: – 00:30 hours, GMT +5:30 hours, Weekly Holidays: Saturday-Sunday Chancery Address: Al-Akhtal Street, Jabal Al-Weibdeh P.O. Box 1232, Amman – 1118 Jordan Phone: (+962-6) 4622787, 4624680, (+962-79) 9044512, 9044513 Fax: (962-6)- 4611633 Email:

KENYA (Nairobi) 

High Commission of Pakistan Time Difference: -2 hours PST and with GMT +3 hours Chancery Address: St. Michael’s Road, Off Church Road, Off Waiyaki Way, Westlands, P.O. Box 30045, 00100, Nairobi. Phone: (+254-20) 4443911 & 4443912 Fax: (+254-20) 4446507 & 4443803 Email:

Embassy of Pakistan Time Difference: +4 hours PST (Mon-Fri) Chancery Address: 23, Block 66,Munsodong, Daedonggang District, Pyongyang, Democratic Peoples Repblic of Korea Phone: +850 2 3817479 Fax: +850 2 3817622 Email:

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: Time: PST–2 hours, GMT + 3 hours Chancery Address: Villa46 (Old No.7) Qasima 5, Block 11, Street 101, Police Station Road, Jabriya. Postal: P. O. Box No. 988, Safat, 13010, Kuwait. Phone: +965-25327-649, +965-25327-651 Fax: +965-25327-648, +965-25328-012 Email:

Embassy of Pakistan Time Difference: -1 hours with PST Chancery Address: 37- Serova- BayalinovaStreet, Postal Code 720040- Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Phone: 00996-312-373901 – 4 Fax: 00996-312-373905 Email:

Lebanon (BEIRUT)
EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: -2 hours (Summer) -3 hours (Winter) GMT+3 hours inSummers and +2 hours in Winters,(Saturday & Sunday)(Holidays) Chancery Address: UNESCO Centre Crossroad, Saeb Salam Street, Building No. 1, Verdun Plaza, 8th Floor, Beirut, Lebanon Phone: (+961-1) 790327 & 790417 Fax: (+961-1) -790471 Email:

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: Chancery Address: Shara-e-Huzayfa Bin Al-Yaman, ManshiaBen Ashur, P.O. Box 2169, Tripoli Phone: 00218-21-3610937/3616581 Fax: 00218-21-3600412 Email:

MALAYSIA (Kula Lumpur)
High Commission for Islamic Republic of Pakistan
132 Jalan Ampang, 50450 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel Off : + 6 (03) 2161 8877 – 79 Fax No : + 6 (03) 2164 5958

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: Chancery Address: G. Helengeli, Lily Magu, Male ( Maldives). Phone: 00960-3323005 Fax: 00960-3321832 Email:

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: Chancery Address: Hegel 512, Colonia Chapultepec Morales,Delegación Miguel Hidalgo, México Distrito Federal, C.P. 11570 Phone: (5255) 5203.3636 Fax: (5255) 5203.9907 Email:

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: Chancery Address: Rabat 37 Avenue Ahmad Balafrej, Souissi,Rabat Phone: (+212) 537 631 367 & 537 631 192 Fax: (+212) 537 631 243 Email:

Embassy of Pakistan Time Difference:  Monday to Friday (Office hours): 09:00 to 17:00   Chancery Address: P.O. Box No.202, Pushpanjali, Maharajgunj Chakrapath, Kathmandu, Nepal Phone: +977 14374024 Fax: +977 1 4374012 Email:

Embassy of Pakistan Time Difference:  Monday to Friday (Office hours): 09:00 to 17:00   Chancery
Address: Hague, Netherlands Phone: Fax: Email:

High Commission of Pakistan Time Difference: -4 hours PST (Mon-Fri) Chancery Address: Plot No.4(Old Number 1805) Samora Machel Street, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria Phone: +234 9 3141650 Fax: +234 9 3141652 Email:

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: Monday to Friday (Office hours): 09:00 to 17:00 ChanceryAddress: ECKERSBERGS GATE 20, 0244 Oslo, Norway Phone: +47 23 13 60 80 Fax: +47 22 55 50 97 email:

Time Difference: PST + 06.00 hours GMT, + 01.00 hour PST, Weekly Holiday : Friday & Saturday Chancery Address: 182-Onslow Road, Khandallah, Wellington Phone: 0064-4-4790026 & 0064-4-4790027 Fax: 0064-4-4794315 Email:

Time Difference:  PST -1, GMT + 4, Weekly Holidays: Thursday & Friday Chancery Address: Building NO.1702, Plot No.1629/1/4, Road No.10, Way No.2133, Madina Sultan Qaboos P.O.Box No. 1302 PC 112, RUWI Phone: 24603439 & 24696511 Fax: 24697462 Email: &

Address: Edif, “ Empresas Pallares” Brasil 123, Casilla de Correo 1674, Asuncion , Paraguay .
Telephone: (595-21) -204-296 , (595-21) 204-217  E-mail:,

Time Difference:  PST + 03 hours, Weekly Holidays: Saturday & Sunday Chancery Address: 6 th Floor Alexander House, 132 Amorsolo St., Legaspi Village Makati City, Metro Manila, Philippines Phone: .(+63-2) 817-27-72 & 817-27-76 Fax: (+63-2) 8400229 Email:

Chancery address: Rua Antonio De Saldanha No.46, Restelo, Lisbon 1400-021 Portugal Telephone: (351) 21-3009070, 3009073, Fax: (351) 21-3013514
Time: PST -4 hours (summer), GMT+1 (Summer), PST –5 hours (winter), GMT (Winter), Weekly Holidays: Saturday & Sunday. Email:

Time Difference:  -2 hours, Weekly Holidays: Friday & Saturday   Chancery Address: 30, Diplomatic Area, West Bay, Doha (Qatar)
Phone: 974) 4832525, 4832235-7 Fax: (974) 4832227 Email:

Embassy of Pakistan
Time Difference:  (PST -3 hrs) Monday to Friday (Office hours): 09:00 to 17:00
Chancery Address: Barbu DeLaVrancea Str. N,22, Sector 1 Bucharest, Romania
Phone: 021-318-7873, (021) 318-7876 Fax: 021-318-7874 Email:

17-Sadova Kudrinskaya,123001- Moscow
Tel: +7-499-7662320, Fax: 9569097

Embassy of Pakistan
Time Difference: -2 hours PST, GMT -3 hours (Holidays: Thursday & Friday) Chancery Address: Diplomatic Quarters, P.O. Box 94007, Riyadh 11693
Phone: +9661 4884111, +9661 4884222 Fax: +966 14887953 Email:

Consulate General of Pakistan
Post Box No.182 Jeddah-21411 Saudi Arabia
Tel: 6692371/6691046

Pakistan High Commission
1 Scotts Road #24-02/04, Shaw Centre, Singapore 228208
Phone (65) 6737 6988 Fax. (65) 6737 4096


Embassy of Pakistan
Time Difference: -3 hrs in Summer (April-September), -4 hrs in Winter (October-March) PST Chancery Address: Ul. Staroscinska 1, Apartment 1 & 2, 2nd Floor, 2-516 Warsaw Phone: +48 22 8494808, +48 22 8494938 Fax: +48 22 8491160


Time Difference:  PST -3 hours, GMT +2 hours Chancery Address: 312 Brooks Street, Menlo Park 0081, P.O.Box 11803, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria Phone: (+27-12) ) 362-4072/73 & 362-7808 Fax: (+27-12) 362-3967 Email:

Address: Avda Pio XII No. 11, 28016-Madrid Telephone: (+34-91) 345 8986, 345 8995 Fax: (+34-91) 345 8158 Country Code: 421
E-Mail:,comercio@emjabada- Web:
Address: No. 211, De Saram Place, Colombo-10.
Telephone: (+94-11) – 2696301-2, 2697392 Fax: (+94-11) -2695780, 2677724, 2665327
Country Code: 94 E-Mail:

Address: House No. 13, Block 35, Dr.Mehmood Sharif Street., Al Manshia, P.O. Box 1178.Khartoum. Telephone: (+249-183) 265599, 262199
Fax: (+249-183) 273777 Country Code: 249

Address: Karlavagen 65, 1 tr, 114 49 Stockholm, P.O. Box 5872 102 40 Stockholm. Telephone: (46-8) 203300 Fax: (46-8) 249233 Country Code: 94 E-Mail: Web:

Address: P.O. Box No. 707, 61-Africa Road, Khartoum-II, Sudan. Telephone: (0041-31) -3501790-91-92 Fax: (0041-31) -3501799 Country Code: 41 E-Mail:

Address: Shara-e-Al-Farabi, East Mezzeh, P.O. Box. No. 9284, Damascus. Telephone: (963-11) 6132694 & 6132695 Fax: (963-11) 6132662 Country Code: 963 E-Mail:

Address: 1:3 Dostoevskiy St. Dushanbe Opposite Embassy of China, Dushanbe Telephone: (992 – 372) + 246839, 230177 Fax: (992 – 372) + 211729 Country Code: 992 E-Mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.‘; document.getElementById(‘cloak26323’).innerHTML += ‘<a ‘=”” +=”” path=”” ‘\”=”” prefix=”” ‘:’=”” addy26323=”” ‘\’=””>’+addy_text26323+'<\/a>’; //–>\n

<a ‘=”” +=”” path=”” ‘\”=”” prefix=”” ‘:’=”” addy26323=”” ‘\’=””>

<a ‘=”” +=”” path=”” ‘\”=”” prefix=”” ‘:’=”” addy26323=”” ‘\’=””>THAILAND
Address: 31, Soi Nana Nua, Sukhumvit (3) Road, Bangkok 10110. Telephone: (662) 2530288, 2530289 Fax: (662) 2530290, 2535325 Country Code: 662 Web:

Address: Embassy of Pakistan, 35 Rue Ali Ayari, El-Menzah IX-A Tunis, Tunisia. Telephone: (216) 71 871330, 71 871311
Fax: (216) 71 871410
Country Code: 216
Address: 37, Iran Caddesi, G.O.P. Ankara, Turkey
Telephone: (+90-312) 4271410-13
Fax: (+90-312) 4671023
Country Code: 90
E-Mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Address: Ashgabat, 4/1, Garashsyzlyk Street. Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Telephone: (+993-12) 482128, 482129
Fax: (+993-12) 482130, 482132 Country Code: 993

Address: 7, Panfilovtsiv per. Kyiv Ukraine, 01015.
Telephone: (380-44 )2802577, 2889563
Fax: (380-44 )2544530
Country Code: 380

Address: Plot No. 2, Sector W. 59 Diplomatic Enclave, P.O. Box No. 846, Abu Dhabi (U.A.E). Telephone: (+971-2) 4447800, 4447422
Fax: (+971-2) 4447172, 4447328, 4447037 Country Code: 971
E-Mail: Web:
Address: 35/36 Lowndes Square, London SWIX 9JN
Telephone: (+44-0207) 664-9200
Fax: (+44-0207) 664-9224
Country Code: 44

Address: 3517 International Court, NW, Washington, DC 20008
Telephone: (1-202) 243-6500
Fax: (1-202) 686-1544, (1-202) 686-1534
Country Code: 1
Address: Building No. 15, Kichik Halqa Yoli Street, Sobir Rahimov District,Tashkent
Telephone: (998-71) 1480525, 3982173,3988649
Fax: (998-71) 1449233, 1449389
Country Code: 998

Address: 44/2 Van Bao Street, Van Phuc Diplomatic Compound, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Telephone: (84-4) 7262251, 7262252
Fax: (84-4) -7262253
Country Code: 84
Address: Ring Road, Off Hadda Road, P.O. Box 2848, Sana’a.
Telephone: (967-1) -248814
Fax: (967-1) -248866
Country Code: 967
Address: 11 Van Praagh Avenue, P.O. Box 3050, Milton Park, Harare, Zimbabwe. Telephone: (+263-4) -720293 & 722446
Fax: (+263-4) -794264 Country Code: 263
Olleros 2130, Buenos Aires, Argentina

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: PST -½ hours, GMT +4 ½ hours, (Friday, Saturday are off days) Chancery Address: H.No.10, Najat Watt Road , Wazir Akbar Khan, Kabul Phone: (+93-20) 2300911-13 Fax: (+93-20) 2300912

EMBASSY OF PAKISTAN Time Difference: PST -4 hours, GMT +1 hours (Thursday, Friday are off days) Chancery Address: Villa 18, Rue Idrissides, Ex. Henri Badin, Bougara, El Biar, Algiers , Algeria P.O. Box No. 395, El-Biar, Algiers , Algeria Phone: (213-21) 793756, (213-21) 793757 Fax: (213-21) 793758This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.”>Email:

Pakistan is an interesting country, very rich in cultural heritage and human resources. It offers a great variety of scenic beauty fairly high altitudes towards the west. The northern region offers wild rivers, wonderful valleys, deep and steep gorges, snow covered sky high peaks, wild wastelands and eternal glaciers. There are dissected uplands and fertile plains in the middle, desolate deserts and plateaus toward the south, sandy silver white coastal beaches, lagoons, mangrove swamps and sea in the extreme south. The landscape in the north is stunning. There are mountains almost touching the sky. In a radius of forty square kilometers seven of the highest-seventeen peaks of the world are located. These peaks are considered as the Mecca of mountaineers all over the world. There are more than forty mountain peaks, which are higher than 7000m (25000 feet), much higher than all the highest peaks of Europe, Australia, Africa, Japan, Middle East and most of the other Asian countries. Beside these high mountain peaks the area is known for the longest and dreadful glaciers found now here else except in the polar region. In addition to these glaciers there are scores of lakes, hundreds of streams and a wild web of mountain locked valleys. There are thick forests of pine, juniper and a vast variety of flora and fauna. The combination of all these natural gifts have turned several sports into tourists resorts which are admired, desired and loved by a great majority of people from almost all parts of the world.

Khyber Pass, PeshawarThe Quaid’s residence in Ziarat, QuettaCamel Safari through the Cholistan DesertCamel Safari through the Cholistan Desert Tourism to Pakistan started 4000 years ago with the arrival of the first tourist – the Aryans; they liked our land so much they never left. Next came the Persians, the Greeks, the Bactrians, the white Huns, the Turks, the Moghuls, and the British. But this country, which has been such an old tourist destination, is just now re-emerging on the tourist map. A late arrival but with a promising infrastructure, we can satisfy the most discerning travelers. Here, the tourist searching for the undiscovered, unspoiled gateway can find a vacation full of sublime vistas. Journey to the rugged Karakoram and Hindu Kush Mountains in the north to the historic fort-strewn deserts that sweep towards the south. Pakistan is a year- round destination, with new adventures developing each year. We have sophisticated cities that are modern and cosmopolitan, but still they preserve their age-old bazaars and ancient monuments that take days to explore. We have intriguing villages, with mysterious cultures that speak quietly of the past, clinging to old fashioned traditions that turn every visitor into a fascinated anthropologist. Everywhere in the cities, in the villages, on the roads that take you here to there – you will find a level of hospitality that is hard to forget. Situated at the crossroads of history, Pakistan is a land of marvelous contrasts. From its southern desert plains to the terraced green fields of Askoli in the north (the last village before K-2), Pakistan drenches the senses with mountain majesty and exotic tribal cultures. Moving north, the endless white sandy beaches of the Arabian Sea give way to the Punjabi plains and vast agricultural lands, then the great gash of the Indus Gorge and countless snow-locked peaks along the border with China north, India east, Afghanistan west and the former Soviet republics of Central Asia.
Through the ages many civilizations settled along the banks of the mighty Indus River. The Indus, father of rivers, begins its journey in the remote peaks of the Subcontinent. Coursing in rolling fury through the Indus Gorge, the Indus is edged by the fragile ribbon of the Karakoram Highway (KKH). Today, the heirs of these ancient cultures, Baltis, Hunzakuts, Pushtuns and a host of others still practice their timeless ways of life along the KKH.
Each year millions flock to the European Alps and thousands visit Nepal. Only a few of the well-informed and adventurously curious are fortunate enough to experience the stunning “Roof of the World” that is Northern Pakistan. Here four great mountain ranges meet:
The Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindukush and Pamir Mountains. Embracing many of the planet’s highest peaks, the Pamir Knot of Pakistan is the incredible confluence of these four great ranges. Of the fourteen highest peaks on earth, Pakistan has five, two of which are the sublime pyramid of K2 (at 8611 m) the second highest mountain on earth and the most dangerous mountain in the world, Nanga Parbat (8125m). In addition, the area contains some of the longest and largest glacier systems outside of the polar regions.
Pakistani hospitality and friendliness are legendary. Far from the civil unrest that occasionally plagues Karachi and many other Asian cities, the mountain people of Northern Pakistan look forward to welcoming you into their midst. Come join them in a world of unparalleled beauty and drama, learn and witness for yourself what so few others have experienced.


Being mostly Muslims, the people of Pakistan are culturally homogenous. The other religious groups include the Christians, Buddhist, Hindus and Parsees. All are of composite racial stock although the majority is of Aryan extraction. While Urdu, the national language, is spoken throughout Pakistan, English is extensively used in official and commercial circle and in the cities. The regional languages are Sindhi in Sindh, Baluchi in Baluchistan, Punjabi in Punjab and Pushto in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP).


More than 5 airlines fly to Pakistan from over 40 countries. Most of the flights arrive at Karachi, but PIA, British Airways, Emirates, Saudi and China Xinjiang Airlines fly direct to the twin cities of Rawalpindi/ Islamabad. PIA, Indian Airlines, Saudi and Thai Airways fly direct to Lahore. Pakistan International (PIA) has direct flights from the main Mediterranian and European cities, as well as from New York, Toronto and Nairobi. It also runs a Far East Network from Tokyo, Beijing, Jakarta, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok. PIA have also flights to Tashkent and Almaty from Islamabad, Lahore, Peshawar, and Karachi while another Pakistan Airlines, Aero Asia has a weekly flight between Karachi, Bishkek and Dubai.


From China; The Khunjerab Pass is open from 1st May to 31st October for groups and to 15th November for individual tourists. Customs, Immigration post shall remain open daily from 08:30 to 11:00 for outgoing travellers and upto 16:00 (Pakistan Standard Time) for incoming tourists. Travel Time from Sost to Tashkurgan (China) is 05 hours (20 kms). The Chinese border post, Tashkurgan is open 12:00 noon to 14:00 (Beijing Time) for outgoing tourists and upto 19:00 for incoming travellers. PTDC nad NATCO (Northern Areas Transport Corporation) run daily buses, vans and jeeps from Sost to Tashkurgan and one-way fare is fixed at US $ 40 per person or equivalent in Pak. rupees (subject to change without notice).


Wagha is the only land border open between Pakistan and India (Lahore-Amritsar route). The Wagha bordser post is open daily for foreigners; summer (16 April to 15 October) 08:30 to 14:30 hrs and winter (16 October to 15 April) 09:00 to 15 hrs.


In addition to Lahore -Delhi Samjhota Train service on Mondays and Thursdays, Pakistan Tourist Development Corporation (PTDC) and Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) has started a luxury direct bus service between Lahore and Delhi. The air conditioned bus service leaves simultaneously from Falteti’s hotel, Edgerton Road, Lahore and New Delhi on every Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday.
Pak- Iran border crossing is only possible through Taftan – Zahidan. Several buses and coaches daily leave from Taftan to Quetta (634 kms and 18 hours drive). Train service is also available for the sector Quetta-Zahidan -Quetta.


PIA serves 38 domestic airports with schedule connections, including multiple daily flights between major cities of Karachi, Quetta, Multan, Lahore, Islamabad, and Peshawar. Two private airlines, Aero Asia and Shaheen Airline, also serve Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad. PIA has daily flights linking the northern tourist towns of Gilgit, Skardu and Saidu Sharif with Islamabad and Chitral with Peshawar. All flights to the northern region are subject to good weather.


Pakistan has an extensive network of roads and highways, linking every big and small town. There are several highways like the Grand Trunk road (G.T. Road) between Lahore and Peshawar, Supewr Highway and National Highway linking Karachi with Interior of Sindh and Punjab, Indus Highway linking Peshawar with the Southern Punjab, RCD Highway linking Karachi and Qetta and onto Taftan (Pak-Iran border) and the Karakoram Highway joining Islamabad with kashgar (China) through abbottabad, Gilgit Hunza and Khunjerab Pass. A landmark has been achieved with the completion of Lahore-Islamabad Motorway (M2), and Faislabad-Pindi Bhatian Motorway (M3), which have opened some of the remote areas of Pakistan for visitors. Another project of Motorway i.e; Islamabad- Peshawar (M1) will be completed in near future.



Pakistan has over 12,700 kilometers of railways, including 8,500 kms inherited from the British. Main line runs from Karachi to Peshawar connecting important tourist places like Moenjodaro, Sukkur, Bahawalpur, Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi/ Islamabad, Taxila and Peshawar. Another main line link Quetta with the rest of the country. There are several daily trains running on these lines, however, the faster trains like Shalimar Express (Lahore-Karachi) and Railcar (Lahore-Rawalpindi) have more comfortable air-conditioned compartments for travelers. Pakistan Railways allows a 25% concession in all classes, to foreign tourists and 50% discount for foreign students (both for groups and individuals). This concession is allowed on production of a recommendation certificate issued by any PTDC Tourist Information Center and original passport, to the Divisional Superintendent of Pakistan Railways (at Karachi, Quetta, lahore, Sukkur, Multan, Peshawar and Rawalpindi or Station Masters of other principal Stations.


Pakistan offers a wide range of accomodation. Modern, well equipped chain hotels like Sheraton and Avari (at Karachi & Lahore), Pearl Continental Hotels (at Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Bhurban and Abbottabad), Marriott (Karachi & Islamabad), Holiday Inn(Karachi, Lahore, Multan, Islamabad), Serena Hotels (Faisalabad, Quetta, Gilgit, Hunza and Saidu Sharif), Pine Park Hotels (Naran, Khannian & Shogran), Green Hotels (Nathiagali, Abbottabad, Peshawar), Shangrilla Resorts & Hotels (Naran, Chilas & Skardu) offers good services and facilities. Pakistan Tourist Development Corporation (PTDC) also operates 2 hotels and 29 motels located throughout Pakistan. A government tax/ duty up to 17.5% is added to the rent at most places. There are official Dak Bungalows and Rest Houses at most of the stations and valleys, maintained by either Provincial Forest Department, Public Works Department (PWD) or by the local administration. Advance booking is recommended.


Pakistan Youth Hostels Association (PYHA) was founded in 1951 which now runs a chain of 6 Youth Hostels is available to the members of organistaions. For more details and reservation, email us


Pakistan is a treasure house of exquisite handicrafts, made by people who grew up to weave, to pot, to work metals, wood and stone, to decorate, to build things small and great. Pottery here is a living history, a traditional craft that became an art, with its origins going back to 3,000 years B.C. Today, each region of Pakistan claims its own special jars and jugs, from sturdy terra – cotta to paper thin ceramics, in vivid colours of mustard yellow, deep green, brick red and sky blue. For those keen on shopping, the prices are still quite reasonable. You will find yourself still returning home with hand woven carpets, marble pieces, copper and brass items, woodwork, embroidered “Kurtas” and “Khussas” and countless objects d’art.


Having inherited the culinary traditions of the Moghuls, the Turks, the Central Asians and the Iranian, eating out in Pakistan is a rich and unique experience. Most local restaurants serve authentic Pakistan dishes straight from the oven, with the sights and sounds of a bazaar in the background. Meat, fish and vegetable dishes are seasoned with spices. Particularly palatable are the grills barbecues; Seekh-Kabab (minced meat grilled on skewer), Shami-Kabab (minced meat), Tikka (barbecued mutton, beef or chicken) and Saji (Barbecued leg of lamb). Pakistani mutton and chicken curries and the oriental rice dish called pullao, are also popular with natives and foreigners alike.


Lightweight, cotton clothes suffice except in north in winter. Men wear suits for business meetings, social events. Casual shalwar suits are worn by all women and most men in public. Women should dress modestly.


Pakistan is a special interest destination. Its main attraction include adventure tourism in the Northern Areas, cultural and archeological tourism as found in Taxila, Moenjodaro, Harappa, and Swat and early Muslim & Mughal Heritage of Multan, Lahore, Thatta and Peshawar. From the mighty Karakorams in the North to the vast alluvial delta of the Indus River in the South, Pakistan remains a land of high adventure and nature. Trekking, mountaineering, white water rafting, wild boar hunting, mountain and desert jeep safaris, Camel and Yak safaris, trout fishing and bird watching, are a few activities which entice adventure and nature lovers to Pakistan.


The “first tourist group” arrived in Pakistan some 4000 years ago. They were the Aryans. They liked the land so much that they never went back. In their search, came the Persians followed by the Greeks, Bactrian’s, Huns, Arabs, Dravidians, Turks, Mongols, Tibetans & many others, but all preferred to stay here. The obvious reason was the incomparable beauty, grandeur & tranquility of this region. Pakistan possesses all ingredients for a Booming Tourist Destination. Its “extremely rich heritage” is enough to quench the aesthetics from all walks of life. Unfortunately, however, Pakistan’s tourism potential is little known to the western world & its rich & multicolored heritage is lying untapped.


10 million years ago, the common ancestors of the man & ape roamed around ISLAMABAD – the gleaming new capital of Pakistan. The Stone Age tools of the Homo sapiens species of 50,000 B.C are found along the So’Aan River. We happen to be the proud inheritors of the regions that remained “centers” of the ancient civilizations of the World. Not just one out of dozens, but “ONE” out of the “TWO” ancient civilizations on this Earth. Yes..! the developed civilizations of the Indus, at Harrappa & Mohenjodaro are Contemporary to the Egyptian civilizations of the Nile & the Mesopotamian civilizations of Euphrates. The developed city of Mehrgarh was “3000 years old” when Alexander the great invaded this region in 326 B.C. The region that forms Pakistan has always been on the crossroads of history. All the ancient routes and great passes happen to be in Pakistan, which made this region a favorite play ground for the conquerors, traders, travelers, historian, preachers & tourists.


Enveloped in the extremes of 04 distinct weathers, the contrasting Geography of Pakistan is the nature’s great gift. Spread over an area of 8,68,591 Sq Kms, this magnificent land contains galaxies of towering snow capped mountains, gigantic creeping glaciers, lush green alpine meadows, rushing white rivers, tumbling waterfalls, quiet lakes, blossoming fruit orchards in the “North” & fertile plateaus, rich alluvial plains, meandering yellow rivers, glowing deserts & sandy beaches in the “South”. The “CONTINENTAL COLLISION” of the three mighty mountain ranges of the world the Himalayas, the Karakorams & the Hindukush in the North gave birth to the “thickest cluster” of the Highest Peaks & Largest Glaciers on Earth. The statistics are simply baffling. “05” of the world’s “14” peaks above 8000 meters are in Pakistan. “101” peaks are above 7000 meters & whereas peaks from 6999 to 3000 meters are countless. “50” of the world’s “100” highest peaks are in Pakistan. “K-2” 8626 M is the second highest on Earth. Alone in Baltistan & Hunza, there are more than “100” peaks above 18,000 ft. literally; most of their base camps are higher than the Summits of all the peaks in Europe. Pakistan’s glaciated region covers 12000 Sq/Kms. The “06” longest valley glaciers of the world, are also in Pakistan & their total length exceed 350 Km. the Biafo-Hispar glacial corridor of 116 Km is the longest on Earth. No mention of over 300 small glaciers & their tributaries. The Hundreds of miles of rushing torrents surging out from the snouts of these glaciers mingle to form the 3200 Km long Indus river which quenches the entire length of the country & merges with the Arabian Sea which banks a sandy beach of over 1000 Km. This incomparable contrast will be completed only but with a brief mention of the 470,000 Sq Km deserts located in Baluchistan, Sind & Southern Punjab with a rich multicolored culture of their own.


Pakistan is an eternal abode of 120 Million people of over “30 Ethnic Groups” speaking over “40 Languages & Dialects” (excluding immigrants). They all differ from each other in every respect. Here live the people in caves, straw abodes, mud houses & boats quite aloof from the privileges of modern life & in the same country dwell the people in palatial living quarters & skyscrapers well acquainted to the space-age. Pakistan, is perhaps, the only country which exhibits an amazing contrast of color, creeds, races, inheritance, customs, languages, dresses & religions after every 25 miles in any direction. Whether they are the Fierce Pathans or the Upright Baluchi; the Submissive Baltis or the Amiable Hunzakurts; the Primitive Kafirs or the Versatile Punjabis – all wear different cultures, but are fastened with just one common character – the “TRADITIONAL HOSPITALITY”.


Pakistan’s population, as you know is derived from a variety of races bearing distinct languages, culture, & dresses. Out of many interesting & lively cultures we have in Pakistan, I would like to highlight the colorful culture of Kalash. The Kalash valleys are inhabited by a primitive people known as Kafir Kalash, which means the wearers of the black robes. Their origin is cloaked in controversy. Since the sign of the Macedonian period are still to be found among these people. They are said to be the decedents of the Greek soldiers who entered this valley in 327 B.C. The Kalash people live in centuries old houses multi storied on steep mountain slopes along the river beds. The cluster of these small houses look like bee-hives. The odd rituals, primitive customs and peculiar habits of friendly and peaceful Kalash bewitch and enthrall the tourists from all over the world. Kalash women still wear black woolen homespun garments, red beaded necklaces by the dozens and exceptional headpiece that flows down their backs embroidered with cowry shells, beads and trinkets. Unlike the Pakistani Muslim women, the Kalash women do not observe “veil” (purdah) and possess frank manners. Their instruments are flutes and drums. They worship wooden idols and have strange habits. The woman carries their make up & hair dressing at the river, as they are not allowed to bring combs and cosmetics to their homes as they bring evils. Another peculiar habit is the separation of women during their menstruation periods. The ceremonies accompanying death are the queerest of all. Every death is celebrated with dance & music by the elders & mourned upon by the young who are not yet fully aware of the Kalash philosophy which says “the dead are passed on to a better world” The body is then placed in a wooden coffin with its personal belongings and jewelry etc and left above the ground to decay.



The land where the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is situated today had been a seat of world’s leading Civilizations from the time immemorial. There is plenty of evidence from the pre-historic and historic period to support this argument, e.g. fossil jaws of apes, circa 14 millions years old found from Pothohar. They belong to a species named “Sivapithecus Pakininsis”, said to be the ancestor of Man. A 2 million years old earliest stone hand axe. Now on display in Islamabad Museum, Islamabad. The legacy of our predecessors at the time of our independence, on August 14, 1947, came to us as a treasure which may be called as Pakistan’s national heritage. So rich and diversified is this heritage that Pakistani nation can be proud of its glorious past, be Islamic, Post Islamic or pre-Islamic period as far back as pre-historic times. No other country of the world can produce the treasure of by gone days as can be found in Pakistan. It is now incumbent upon us to treasure our national heritage and save it from further. The Cultural Heritage of Pakistan is spread over the centuries, starting from pre-historic times to the present day and which may be summarized in the following periods:
The land where the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is situated today had been a seat of world’s leading Civilizations from the time immemorial. There is plenty of evidence from the pre-historic and historic period to support this argument, e.g. fossil jaws of apes, circa 14 millions years old found from Pothohar. They belong to a species named “Sivapithecus Pakininsis”, said to be the ancestor of Man. A 2 million years old earliest stone hand axe. Now on display in Islamabad Museum, Islamabad.
The legacy of our predecessors at the time of our independence, on August 14, 1947, came to us as a treasure which may be called as Pakistan’s national heritage. So rich and diversified is this heritage that Pakistani nation can be proud of its glorious past, be Islamic, Post Islamic or pre-Islamic period as far back as pre-historic times. No other country of the world can produce the treasure of by gone days as can be found in Pakistan. It is now incumbent upon us to treasure our national heritage and save it from further. The Cultural Heritage of Pakistan is spread over the centuries, starting from pre-historic times to the present day and which may be summarized in the following periods:

Indus Civilization:

This land also witnessed the glorious era of Indus civilization about 8000 years B.C when the first village was found at Mehargarh in the Sibi District of Balochistan comparable with the earliest villages of Jericho in Palestine and Jarmo in Iraq. Here, during the last decade i.e., 1980’s, the French and Pakistani archaeologists have excavated mud built houses of the Mehargarh people and their agricultural land known for the cultivation of maize and wheat, together with polished stone tools, beads and other ornaments, painted jars and bowls, drinking glasses, dishes and plates. The archaeologists believe that by 7000 B.C., the Mehargarh people learnt to use the metal for the first time. From the first revolution of agricultural life the man moved to another great revolution in his social, cultural and economic life. He established trade relations with the people of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran and the Arab world. He not only specialized in painting different designs of pottery, made varieties of pots and used cotton and wool but also made terracotta figurines and imported precious stones from Afghanistan and Central Asia. This early bronze age Culture spread out in the countryside of Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab and North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. This early beginning led to the concentration of population into the small towns, such as Kot Diji in Sindh and Rahman Dheri in Dera Ismail Khan district. It is this social and cultural exchange that led to the rise of the famous cities of Moenjodaro and Harappa, with largest concentration of population including artisans, craftsmen, businessmen and rulers.This culminated in the peak of the Indus Civilization which was primarily based on intensively irrigated agricultural land and overseas trade and contact with Iran, Gulf States, Mesopotamia and Egypt. Dames were built for storing river water, land was cultivated by means of bullock-harnessed plough – a system which still prevails in Pakistan, granaries for food storage were built, furnace was used for controlling temperature for making red pottery and various kinds of ornaments, beads of carnelian, agate, and terracotta were pierced through and above all they traded their finished goods with Central Asia and Arab world. It is these trade dividends that enriched the urban populace who developed a new sense of moral honesty, discipline and cleanliness combined with a social stratification in which the priests and the mercantile class dominated the society. The picture of high civilization can be gathered only by looking at the city of Moenjodaro, the First Planned City in the World, in which the streets are aligned straight, parallel to each other with cross streets cutting at right angles. It is through these wide streets that wheeled carriages, drawn by bulls or asses, moved about, carrying well-adorned persons seated on them appreciating the closely aligned houses made of pucca-bricks, all running straight along the streets. And then through the middle of the streets ran stone dressed drains covered with stone slabs – a practice of keeping the streets clean from polluted water, seen for the first time in the world. The legacy of our predecessors at the time of our independence, on August 14, 1947, came to us as a treasure which may be called as Pakistan’s national heritage. So rich and diversified is this heritage that Pakistani nation can be proud of its glorious past, be Islamic, Post Islamic or pre-Islamic period as far back as pre-historic times. No other country of the world can produce the treasure of by gone days as can be found in Pakistan. It is now incumbent upon us to treasure our national heritage and save it from further.

Gandhara Civilization:

Pakistan is the land which attracted Alexander the great from Macedonia in 326 B.C., with whom the influence of Greek culture came to this part of the world. During the 2nd century B.C., it was here that Buddhism was adopted as the state religion which flourished and prevailed here for over 1000 years, starting from 2nd century B.C., until 10th century A.D. During this time Taxila, Swat and Charsaddah (old Pushkalavati) became three important centres for culture, trade and learning. Hundreds of monasteries and stupas were built together with Greek and Kushan towns such as Sirkap and Sirsukh both in Taxila. It was from these centres that a unique art of sculpture originated which is known as Gandhara Art all over the world. Today the Gandhara Sculptures occupy a prominent place in the museums of England, France, Germany, USA, Japan, Korea, China, India and Afghanistan together with many private collections world over, as well as in the museums of Pakistan. Nevertheless, the zenith of this Gandhara Art is one and only “Fasting Buddha” now on display in Lahore Museum, Lahore. Finally, the light of Islam penetrated in this part of the world as early as 7th century AD. from the west with the Arabs and during the 10th century AD from the north with the Turks. Islam replaced the early way of life of worshipping idols and introduced new philosophy of faith in one God. With Islam in came a new culture in this land from Arabia and Central Asia. Hence, a new type of architecture, hitherto unknown in this area, was introduced. Tens of thousands of Mosques, Madrassahs, tombs and gardens were created by the Muslim rulers all over the Sub-Continent. The new style of Islamic architecture prevailed and matured in this land for over a thousand years. The most important contribution of the Muslim rulers to this land, however, is a new language ‘Urdu’ which became the national language of Pakistan since its independence in 1947. The legacy of our predecessors at the time of our independence, on August 14, 1947, came to us as a treasure which may be called as Pakistan’s national heritage. So rich and diversified is this heritage that Pakistani nation can be proud of its glorious past, be Islamic, Post Islamic or pre-Islamic period as far back as pre-historic times. It is hard to find another country which can produce the treasure of by gone days as can be found in Pakistan.

Islamic Period:

The light of Islam penetrated in this part of the world as early as 712 A.D from the west with the Arab General Muhammad bin Qasim and during the 10th century A.D from the north with the Turk Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznah (better known as Mahmud Ghaznavi). Islam replaced the early way of life of worshipping idols and introduced new philosophy of faith in one God. With Islam in came a new culture in this land from Arabia and Central Asia. Hence, a new type of architecture, hitherto unknown in this area, was introduced. Tens of thousands of Mosques, Madrasahs, tombs and gardens were created by the Muslim rulers all over the Sub-Continent. The new style of Islamic architecture prevailed and matured in this land for over a thousand years. The direct influence of the Muslim Rulers was not only confined to the architecture; their food added a variety of new dishes in the Sub-Continental cuisine. The national dress of Pakistan, “ Shalwar Qamiz” is also a direct gift of the Muslim Turks. Since the mother tongue of the Muslim Rulers was Arabic, Turkish and Farsi, it was only natural that the local languages of the Sub-Continent were greatly influenced and new language was introduced. Thus the most important contribution of the Muslim rulers to this land is a new language ‘Urdu’ which became the national language of Pakistan since its independence in 1947. The legacy of our predecessors at the time of our independence, on August 14, 1947, came to us as a treasure which may be called as Pakistan’s national heritage. So rich and diversified is this heritage that Pakistani nation can be proud of its glorious past, be Islamic, Post Islamic or pre-Islamic period as far back as pre-historic times. No other country of the world can produce the treasure of by gone days as can be found in Pakistan.

Sikh Period:

The Sikhs established their Empire in the Punjab after the death of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707. With the death of Aurangzeb the country saw a series of rapid governmental changes that stressed it in to the depths of anarchy. Taking advantage of this certain Charat Singh, who was the head of one of the Sikh Clans, established his stronghold in Gujranwala in 1763. Charat Singh died in 1774 and was succeeded by his son, Mahan Singh, who in turn fathered the most brilliant leader in the history of the Punjab: Maharaja Ranjit Singh. It was this remarkable leader who united the whole Punjab under one flag. His rule stretched from the banks of the Jamuna to the Khyber and from Kashmir to Multan. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the most powerful of all the Sikh Rulers and ruled over for complete 40 years. After his death in 1840 the Sikh Empire was divided into small principalities looked after by several Sikh Jagirdars. This weak situation provided a good opportunity to the British of East India Company to put an end to the Sikh strong hold in the Punjab in 1849. Sikhs are the followers of Baba Guru Nanak Sahib. He was the son of Mehta Kalu Chand and Tripta Devi, both of them Khatris by caste. He was born at Nankana Sahib in 1464. Sikhism was born as a direct reaction against rigid, cruel and inhuman practices of Brahamanism and its rigid caste system. But another important factor which influenced the mind of the people who contributed to the growth of Sikhism, was the impact of Islam which had spread from Arabia to Iraq, Turkistan, Persia and Afghanistan and came in to contact with Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism. The Sikh religion is in fact a product of the Sufi and Bhakti school of thought. Guru Nanak was greatly influenced by Kabir and Shaikh Ibrahim Farid (1450 – 1535) a descendent of the famous Sufi saint Shaikh Farid uddin Shakar ganj of Pak Pattan whose works were incorporated in the Garanth Sahib. Guru Nanak studied books of Hindu and Muslims religions and it was only after deep study of both the religions that he evolved his own school of thought. The basic principles of the Sikhism are much closer to Islam than to Hinduism. A study of the life, events of the Gurus and the large numbers of the monuments sacred to them will, however, reveal how deeply all the Sikh Gurus in general and Guru Nanak, Ajen Dev and Har Go bind Singh in particular are associated with Pakistan. Sikh Shrines: The Gurdwaras are more than a place of worship. They serve as Schools, meeting place and a rest house for the travelers in addition to enshrining the Garanth Sahib. The Gurdwaras are, as such, integral part of the Sikh religious and social life. Since the Sikh Rule lasted for almost a century in the sub-continent there are hundreds of Gurdawaras all over Pakistan but mostly in the Punjab, some of which are very famous such as Nankana Sahib and Punja Sahib. These Gurdwaras are looked after by the Evacuee Trust Property Board (ETPB) which is under the control of the Ministry of Culture, Islamabad. The legacy of our predecessors at the time of our independence, on August 14, 1947, came to us as a treasure which may be called as Pakistan’s national heritage. So rich and diversified is this heritage that Pakistani nation can be proud of its glorious past, be Islamic, Post Islamic or pre-Islamic period as far back as pre-historic times. No other country of the world can produce the treasure of by gone days as can be found in Pakistan. It is now incumbent upon us to treasure our national heritage and save it from further deterioration and loss.

British Period: 1857 – 1947:

Just before the independence of Pakistan this land remained a part of the British Empire for almost a century. Hence the British culture also left an impact on the life of the people of Pakistan. Amongst the British legacy a new form of architecture which is a blend of Islamic and the Western Architecture emerged. This colonial architecture in the form of Residential Bungalows, Educational Institutions, Churches and Railway Stations is still very attrative and in a good condition. Examples of the British Architecture can be seen in all the major cities of Pakistan. The British patronage towards introducing Railways in the Sub-Continent is indeed a great gift and the operational railroad and railway stations in Pakistan today are the same laid and built by the British before 1947. Old Presidency in Rawalpindi, Rest house in Ziarat, Empress Market Karachi, Punjab University’s old Campus, Islamia College Peshawar, and Cathedrals in Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar are just few examples of the British Heritage. The British Empire, however, ceased to exist in this part of the world after 14 August 1947. The legacy of our predecessors at the time of our independence, on August 14, 1947, came to us as a treasure which may be called as Pakistan’s national heritage. So rich and diversified is this heritage that Pakistani nation can be proud of its glorious past, be Islamic, Post Islamic or pre-Islamic period as far back as pre-historic times. No other country of the world can produce the treasure of by gone days as can be found in Pakistan.


Section 1: Existing Wildlife in Pakistan The mountainous areas embracing the Himalayan, Karakorum and Hindukush Ranges are rich in fauna and flora, as compared to other parts of the country. These areas provide an excellent habitat for wildlife in the form of alpine grazing lands, sub-alpine scrub and temperate forests. These habitats support a variety of wild animals. The areas are difficult for human beings to access, hence, most wildlife is present in reasonable numbers though some are endangered for other reasons. Some of the main wildlife species are the snow leopard, the black and the brown bears, otter, wolf, lynx, Himalayan ibex, markhor, bharal, Marco Polo’s sheep, shapu, musk deer, marmots, tragopan and monal pheasants. The snow partridge and snowcock reside at higher elevations. The Rhesus monkey, common langur, red fox, black bear, common leopard, a variety of cats, musk deer (over a limited area), goral, several species of flying squirrels, chakor, partridge and pheasants (koklass, kaleej and cheer) live in the lower elevations. Amongst these the snow leopard, musk deer, Marco Polo’s sheep, and the brown bear are endangered. The Tibetan wild ass and the blue sheep populations have been reduced drastically. The cheer pheasant is reported to be extinct from within Pakistan’s boundaries, and is included in the IUCN Red Data Book. The western horned tragopan was reported to have disappeared from within Pakistani territory, but has now been relocated to Indus Kohistan, although its numbers are low. The main threats to the population of wild animals in the northern mountainous regions include, the competition with domestic livestock for existing natural forage, increasing human interference in the form of cultivation, the construction of roads, and hunting. The Himalayan foothills and the Potohar region, including the Salt Range and Kala Chitta Range, are covered with scrub forests, which have been reduced to scanty growth in most places. Medium-sized animals like the Punjab urial, barking deer, goral, chinkara, partridges (grey and black), seesee and chakor are supported in these habitats. A variety of songbird fauna also occurs in these areas. Vast Indus flood plains have been cleared of natural vegetation to grow crops. Very little wildlife habitat has been left untouched. Only animals like the jackal, mongoose, jungle cat, civet cat, scaly anteater, desert cat and the wild hare occur in these areas. Hog deer is found in riverine tracts. The crop residues and wild growth support reasonable populations of black and grey partridges. Little vegetative cover, severity of climatic conditions and the great thrust of grazing animals on the deserts have left wild animals in a precarious position. Parts of Thall and Cholistan are now being irrigated, with the situation almost identical to that of the flood plains. Chinkara is the only animal, which can still be found in average numbers in Cholistan, but rarely in Thall. The blackbuck, once plentiful in Cholistan has now been eliminated. However, efforts are being made to reintroduce them back into the country. A small number of blue bulls are found along the Pak-Indian border, and some parts of Cholistan. Grey partridge, species of sand grouse and the Indian courser are the main birds of the area. Peafowl occur in some areas in Cholistan. The Thar Desert supports a fair population of the Chinkara gazelle. Peacocks are only found in the wild, mainly because of the protection they enjoy in Hindu communities. The wild ass migrates from the Indian part of the Rann of Kutch to the Pakistani part in search of food. The Houbara bustard is a regular winter visitor to the desert. Visiting diplomats have hunted and reduced their numbers. The great Indian bustard is sporadically sighted. The imperial sandgrouse is another migrant visiting these areas. Grey partridges are frequently sighted. The python is also threatened with extinction. The Sulaiman and Kirthar Ranges present habitats manifesting unique characteristics. The former supports the straight-horned markhor, chinkara and urial, whereas Sindh ibex, urial, chinkara and common leopard occupy the latter. The straight-horned markhor, which is almost extinct from within settled boundaries of Pakistan, occurs in somewhat fair numbers in the Tribal Areas. The chakor, seesee and grey partridge are birds commonly found in the tracts. The reed beds and tamarisk bushes along the rivers support hog deer and black partridge populations. However, due to occasional heavy floods their numbers have also been reduced. The Indus dolphin, fishing cat, and smooth otter are found in the Indus River waters below the Chashma Barrage. The gavial has become extinct in Pakistan. The crocodile is found in small numbers in lower Sindh. Wild boar numbers have increased because of the immunity they enjoy in a Muslim society that forbids its consumption by humans. The animals found in the south-western mountains of Balochistan are: Sindh ibex, Chiltan markhor, straight horned markhor, wild sheep, leopard, marbled pole cat, Blandford’s fox, chinkara, goitered gazelle and the marsh crocodile. The cheetah, is believed to be extinct and the Makran (baluchistan) bear critically endangered. The Houbara bustard (migratory), sandgrouse, black and grey partridges, and the chakor and see see partridges are also found here. Irrigated forest plantations have emerged as the prevailing land use practice for the last 100 years. These ideally provide excellent habitat for chinkara, hog deer and blue bull. Forest management does not cater to the needs of these wild animals. This, coupled with the poor implementation of laws has resulted in the extinction of species in the irrigated plantations. Due to habitat disturbances, the ungulates have failed to establish themselves, whereas the partridges have flourished well. The striped hyena and the wolf are widely distributed in the sparsely populated parts of the country. However, information about them is scanty. Information about carnivores in general is difficult to obtain because of their nocturnal mode of life and high mobility. The black bear and brown bear populations are also not understood completely. Birds of prey like the peregrine, cherrug or saker falcons, tawny eagle, imperial and greater spotted eagles, osprey, shikra, and the black-winged kite occur throughout Pakistan but their population statuses are unknown. Pakistan’s coastline of 1,050 km consists of a variety of habitat types, supporting a wide range of animals, of which over 1000 are fish species. Pakistan’s marine flora and fauna have not been studied properly. Hence, detailed information on these species is deficient. Along the shores, there are four species of marine turtles: the ridley, green, leather back and hawksbill turtle, which are of high economic importance. Due to loss of habitat and human disturbances, their population is also decreasing.

About eight species of freshwater turtles are found in Pakistan. Sand lizards, monitors, geckos, agamas, diamond snakes, sand snakes, vipers, cobras, kraits and the famous Indian python constitute the other reptilian fauna. Large water bodies in the country support a variety of waterfowl both resident and migratory. The extent of wetlands is constantly being changed. On one hand, swamps and marshes are being drained to reclaim land, whereas on the other hand, new dams (large water bodies) have been created for irrigation purposes. Canal irrigation through seepage has also contributed towards increasing the land area under water in the form of water logging. Such areas support a great number of waterfowl by providing them with an excellent habitat. The wetlands are one of the most important wintering areas and “green routes” of Asia. The important waterfowl in Pakistan are the ducks (mallard, pintail, shoveler, pochard, gargeny, ruddy shellduck, teals, tufted and gadwall), geese (grey lag, bar-headed), coots, flamingoes, pelicans, spoon bills, storks, ibises, plovers, curlews, sand pipers, snipes, and herons. The marbled teal and white-headed duck have decreased in number and now visit the wetlands infrequently. Among the waterfowl are (resident) gallinules, moorhens and rails, gulls, terns, water cock, grebes, cormorants, egrets, bitterns, and jakanas. The spot-billed lesser whistling teal and the cotton teal are resident ducks. A rich wader fauna visits the coastline during the winter.